Probability-Based Covering Algorithm (PBCA) is a new algorithm based on probability distribution. It uses the probability of samples and decides the class of the sample on the border of coverage by voting. In the original covering algorithm, there are many tested samples that can't be classified by the spherical neighborhood gained. The network structure of PBCA is mixed structure composed of feed-forward network and feedback network. The method of adding
some samples of different class and enlarging the coverage radius is used to decrease the number of refused samples and
improve the rates of recognition. The algorithm is effected in improving the study precision.
White peach is a famous peach variety for its super-quality and high economic benefit. It is originally planted in Yuandong Villiage, Jinhua County, Zhejiang province. By now, it has been planted in many other places in southeast of China. However, peaches from different planting areas have dissimilar quality and taste, which result in different selling price. The objective of this research was to discriminate peaches from different planting areas by using near-infrared (NIR) spectra and chemometrics methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra were collected by a fiber spectrometer in the range of 800-2500 nm. Discriminant analysis (DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and discriminant partial least square regression (DPLS) methods were employed to classify the peaches from three planting areas 'Jinhua', 'Wuyi', and 'Yongkang' of Zhejiang province. 360 samples were used in this study, 120 samples per planting area. The classifying correctness were above 92% for both DA and SIMCA mdoels. And the result of DPLS model was slightly better. By using DPLS method, two 'Jinhua' peaches, three 'Wuyi' peaches, and three 'Yongkang' peaches were misclassified, the accruacy was above 95%. The results of this study indicate that the three chemometrics methods DA, SIMCA, and DPLS are effective for discriminating peaches from different planting areas based on NIR spectroscopy.
Development of nondestructive measurements of soluble solids and firmness, which are two important ripeness and quality attributes of fruits, benefits the producers, processors and packers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in detecting soluble solid content (SSC) and firmness for pears of three cultivars 'Cuiguan', 'Xueqing' and 'Xizilv' (n=160 of each cultivar). Relationships between nondestructive NIR spectral measurements and firmness and SSC of pear fruits were established by partial least square regression (PLSR) method. Models were developed for each cultivar, every two cultivars, and for all three cultivars in the spectral range of 800-2500 nm. The results of the models for all three cultivars turned out the best. For SSC assessment: correlation coefficients of calibration (r<sub>cal</sub>), root mean standard errors of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.93, 0.35 °Brix and 0.50 °Brix for all three cultivars, respectively. For firmness assessment: rcal, RMSEC and RMSEP were0.92, 2.29 N, 2.95 N for all three cultivars, respectively. The results indicate that NIR spectroscopy can be used for predicting SSC and firmness of pear fruit and are the basis for the development of NIR analyzer suitable for on line application.
Spectral performance would be affected by many factors such as temperature, equipment parameters and so on. Humidity fluctuations may occur in practice because of varying weather conditions. The objective of this research was to find out whether the change of humidity would influence the near infrared spectrum of samples. In this trial, an airproof, humidity-controllable test-bed was established to change the humidity of the mini environment. At 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% degrees of humidity, each sample's final spectrum was attained by removing the background's spectrum from the sample's. For whether the influence of the sample's and the background's spectrum are equal was not known, This trial was divided into two groups: detecting background and sample at each degree of humidity (group 1) and background's detecting just happened at 40% degree of humidity (group 2). This research was based on the hardware of NEXUS intelligent FT-IR spectrometer, made by Nicolet instrument company U.S.A, with using fiber optic diffuse reflectance accessory. The final spectrum was analysed using single variance analysis and Mahalanobis Distance methods. The result shows that neither in group 1 nor 2, humidity had little influence on NIR.
The principal of this new analytical method is to analytically get the coefficients of exponentials, the sum of which approximates the desired rectangular spectrum function of PIF. An arbitrary desired rectangular spectrum could be approximated by a continuous function with ripples. This function can be written in polynomial mathematically, with many unknown coefficients and known special points, such as extremum points and the point of half transmission. A set of equations could be written for those special points, through the solving of which the unknown coefficients will be determined. The following procedures will be the same as the available synthesis procedures of birefringent networks. This method will greatly simplify the design procedure and give more freedom in control of the design spectrum output. An example is given for 5-piece-birefringent-crystal PIF.
By modifying the illumination of the ordinary microscope, the sectioned image of the object is then available at the image plane but with the unwanted ordinary image superimposed. After processing these composite images by decoding algorithm, the optically sectioned images substantially similar to those obtained by confocal microscope can finally be got. Here in this article, we derive the explicit formula of the image formation by using the mutual intensity theory and thus explain the sectioning ability and the decoding theory of this new sectioning microscope. We can conclude that this kind of selective-illumination microscope is actually a selective-illumination microscope.
Optical filter is quite an important measure in optical information processing. In this paper, FIR (finite impulse response) filter theory is employed in optical filter design to set up a novel optical FIR filter model, based on the crystal birefringence effect. Using this model, arbitrary spectrum output can easily be obtained, including double channels. Here we present several optical FIR filter optimization approaches to get good performance and then give both spectrum and angle properties for this fiRer. Furthermore, we also present the experimental implementation and show G/M filter as an example, which has good application prospect in projection display field.
KEYWORDS: Digital signal processing, Lithium, Detection and tracking algorithms, Embedded systems, Nanoimprint lithography, Electronics engineering, Algorithm development, Cerium, Information science, Standards development
A C-compiler is a basic tool for most embedded systems programmers. It is the tool by which the ideas and algorithms in your application (expressed as C source code) are transformed into machine code executable by the target processor. Our research was to develop an optimizing C-compiler for a specified 16-bit DSP. As one of the most important part in the C-compiler, Code Generation's efficiency and performance directly affect to the resultant target assembly code. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the C-compiler, we constructed an efficient code generation based on RTL, an intermediate language used in GNU CC. The code generation accepts RTL as main input, takes good advantage of features specific to RTL and specified DSP's architecture, and generates compact assembly code of the specified DSP. In this paper, firstly, the features of RTL will be briefly introduced. Then, the basic principle of constructing the code generation will be presented in detail. According to the basic principle, this paper will discuss the architecture of the code generation, including: syntax tree construction / reconstruction, basic RTL instruction extraction, behavior description at RTL level, and instruction description at assembly level. The optimization strategies used in the code generation for generating compact assembly code will also be given in this paper. Finally, we will achieve the conclusion that the C-compiler using this special code generation achieved high efficiency we expected.
In this paper, a theoretical random walk model for the metal-vapor segregator of metal-vapor laser is presented. The proposed model was verified qualitatively by experiment. Based on this model, a new type of segregator was proposed. Its principle is as follows: several metal pieces of high metal vapor condensation coefficients were used to adsorb the random walking metal-vapor particles that collide upon them, as a result, a protection of laser windows from the metal-vapor pollution was achieved. A Monte Carlo Simulation showed that the ability of antipollution for this new type segregator was much higher than that of the common segregator.