We investigated time series of measurements of accommodation and monochromatic wave aberrations (WA) for both
eyes. We measured WA for both eyes using an open-view binocular Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor. A landscape
picture was presented at the far point of each subject. Two normal subjects in their thirties and a presbyopic subject were
measured. We didn't find strong crosscorrelations between any two Zernike modes in one eye and in the same Zernike
mode between two eyes; however strong crosscorrelations were found in the accommodation of normal subjects.
Purposes: To determine if reflectance changes of the retina can be detected following electrical stimulation to the retina
using a newly developed optical-imaging fundus camera. Methods: Eyes of cats were examined after pupil dilation.
Retina was stimulated either focally by a ball-type electrode (BE) placed on the fenestrated sclera or diffusely using a
ring-type electrode (RE) placed on the corneoscleral limbus. Electrical stimulation by biphasic pulse trains was applied
for 4 seconds. Fundus images with near-infrared (800-880 nm) light were obtained between 2 seconds before and 20
seconds after the electrical stimulation (ES). A two-dimensional map of the reflectance changes (RCs) was constructed.
The effect of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was also investigated on RCs by ES using RE. Results: RCs were observed around
the retinal locus where the stimulating electrodes were positioned (BE) or in the retina of the posterior pole (RE), in
which the latency was about 0.5 to 1.0 sec and the peak time about 2 to 5 sec after the onset of ES. The intensity of the
RCs increased with the increase of the stimulus current in both cases. RCs were completely suppressed after the injection
of TTX. Conclusions: The functional changes of the retina either by focal or diffuse electrical stimulation were
successfully detected by optical imaging of the retina. The contribution of retinal ganglion cells on RCs by ES was
confirmed by TTX experiment. This method may be applied to the objective evaluation of the artificial retina.