We report on submicron-thick microcavity light emitting diodes (MCLEDs) emitting at the wavelengths of 415 nm ~
460 nm. These devices were fabricated by flip-chip-bonding, laser lift-off, and thinning processes. Growth of a highquality
Al<sub>x</sub>Ga<sub>1-x</sub>N interlayer and etch selectivity between N-face GaN and Al<sub>x</sub>Ga<sub>1-x</sub>N allowed high-precision control of
microcavity thickness, resulting in controlled microcavity effects. Single Fabry-Pérot modes confined in 2λ ~ 2.5λ-thick
MCLEDs gave rise to characteristic angular emission, in contrast to a Lambertian emission. High current operation
(~100 mA) showed robustness of these thin devices with promising the possibility of high-brightness application. We
will discuss design and processing issues regarding photonic-crystal integration towards higher improvements in light
Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects are studied in semiconductor microcavities embedded with InGaAs
quantum dots. Evidence of weak coupling in the form of lifetime enhancement (the Purcell effect) and inhibition is
found in both oxide-apertured micropillars and photonic crystals. In addition, high-efficiency, low-threshold lasing is
observed in the photonic crystal cavities where only 2-4 quantum dots exist within the cavity mode volume and are not
in general spectrally resonant. The transition to lasing in these soft turn-on devices is explored in a series of nanocavities
by observing the change in photon statistics of the cavity mode with increasing pump power near the threshold.
The ability to transfer designs with high fidelity onto photomasks and then to silicon is an increasingly complex task for advanced technology nodes. For example, the majority of the critical layers for even the 130nm node are patterned by sub-wavelength photolithography; therefore, the numerical aperture, illumination condition, and the resist process must be optimized to achieve the necessary resolution. The reticle, as a bridge between design and process, has become very complex due to the extensive application of resolution enhancement technologies (RETs). As the complexity of RETs increases, the final mask data can be vastly different from the original design due to a series of data manipulations. Optimizing the reticle layout plays the pivotal role in design-for-manufacturability (DFM) considerations.
In this paper, we will discuss how design rules must accommodate the needs of Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Phase-shifting Masks (PSM). The final layout on a mask after extensive polygon manipulation must also meet the capability and manufacturability of mask writing, mask inspection, and silicon processing. We will also discuss how the wafer fab's perspective can affect the mask shop. Throughout the discussion, we will demonstrate that the integration at mask level and the collaboration of design, RET, mask shop, and wafer fab are key to DFM success.