Due to they can be tailored to provide a wide range of physical properties and their easiness of processing and fabrication, polymeric materials have found widespread use in the manufacture of microwave, electronics, photonics and bio-tech systems. This paper presents the basic principle of phase modulation spectroscopic ellipsometer (PMSE) and its advantages over other ellipsometry in measuring polymer film. Used for thin film measurements ultra-thin dielectric, meal film and organic film, the PMSE technique is now used over a wide spectral range from the vacuum ultraviolet to the mid infrared. Film thickness ranging from Angstrom up to 50um can be measured by PMSE. Applications of PMSE on measurement and characterization of polymer/organic material are given in the paper.
As a light-intensity-controlling window, electrochromic layer has large potential applications. Thus it gains more and more attention. The properties of such electrochromic layers as WO<SUB>3</SUB>, NiO<SUB>x</SUB>, TiO<SUB>2</SUB>, V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB>, Ta<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> have been studied in this paper. The influences of the evaporation factors, such as substrate temperature, vacuum, oxygen pressure and annealing, and their coloration mechanism, are discussed in detail. In this paper, we present the optical model of these layers, i.e. complex refractive index, N((lambda) ) equals n((lambda) )- ik((lambda) ), and the variations of N((lambda) ) with above conditions. We also studied the changes of N((lambda) ) when we apply positive and negative voltage to the layers. We find that the refractive index n((lambda) ) will become smaller and the extinction coefficient k((lambda) ) will become larger when electrochromic layer is colorized. And the curve of n((lambda) ) and k((lambda) ) will shift to longer wavelength. The longer wavelength absorption is due to impurity, defect, and lattice polarization.
The electrochromic mirror has prospective applications in rear mirror of automobiles. Starting with the technique of electrochromic mirror, this paper presents the research results of such a mirror. When evaporation a five-layer thin film stack i.e. glass/ITO/NiO(Lithiumed)/Ta<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB>/WO<SUB>3</SUB>/Al on a transparent glass substrate, we can obtain an electrochromic mirror. We find that the coating technique will play a key role on the function of the device. The thickness of some layers is critical for the mirror, these layers are NiO, Ta<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> and WO<SUB>3</SUB>. The actually prepared mirror with such structure has a reflectance variation from 70% to 15%. The switching time is about 15 seconds and 7 seconds from bleaching to coloration and from bleaching to coloration respectively. The effects of film structure and composition to the properties of the mirror are measured and discussed by x-ray diffraction, x-photo spectrum and voltammetry. The electrochromic mirror meets the needs for practical application.
The rectangular variable wavelength filter (RVWF) is a new type filter which has the peak wavelength varied linearly with the rectangular substrate length direction. This paper present the principle of RVWF and the design of the films, and the coating technique. We also give the result of our experiment.