X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscope (XPS) was applied to investigate the fresh surface of CdTe crystal surface, prepared by traditional bromine methanol acid etching process. A thin layer of tellurium precipitate had been discovered covering the etched CdTe surface, which is very harmful for the final X-ray detector performance. A special kind of solution had been developed to remove this tellurium precipitates layer for a real fresh CdTe based crystal surface achievement. Further XPS experimental results confirmed that by the application of this solution, the surface tellurium precipitate had been eliminated. Traditional photolithograph process had been employed to fabricate X-ray two-dimensional detector arrays on the tellurium precipitate free CdZnTe surface. Various kinds of two-dimensional CdZnTe X-ray detector arrays, such as 3×3, 4×4 and 32×32 arrays had been fabricated. 10μm width guard rings are precisely achieved for some detector elements. The high-resolution microscope inspection proves that the pattern precision of 0.1μm is achieved on CdZnTe bulk crystal surface. Edge effecting of the photolithograph has been eliminated.
The growth and characterization of Au-doped HgCdTe layers on (211)B CdTe/Si substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy reported. The electrical properties of these layers studied for diffusion are presented. For ex-situ experiments, thin Au layers were deposited by evaporation and annealed at various temperatures and times to investigate the p-type doping properties and diffusion of Au in HgCdTe. The atomic distribution of the diffused Au was determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. We found clear evidence for p-type doping of HgCdTe:Au by in-situ and ex-situ methods. For in-situ doped layers, we found that, the Au cell temperature needs to be around 900°C to get p-type behavior. The diffusion coefficient of Au in HgCdTe was calculated by fitting SIMS profiles after annealing. Both complementary error functions and gaussian fittings were used, and were in full agreement. Diffusion coefficient as low as 8x10-14cm2/s observed for a sample annealed at 250°C and slow component of a diffusion coefficient as low as 2x10-15 cm2/s observed for a sample annealed at 300°C. Our preliminary results indicate no appreciable diffusion of Au in HgCdTe under the conditions used in these studies. Further work is in progress to confirm these results and to quantify our SIMS profiles.
Very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR, λc approximately 20 to 50 μm) HgTe/HgCdTe superlattices were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The layers were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Photoconductive interdigitated electrode detectors for heterodyne applications in the Far-infrared wavelengths (FIR) regions were designed and fabricated. Spectral response measurements exhibit the ability of these detectors to function in the long wavelength (LWIR) to VLWIR regions. Detectivity observed at 77 K is very encouraging and could be enhanced further at lower operating temperatures.
II-VI intrinsic very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR, λc~20 to 50 μm) materials, HgCdTe alloys as well as HgCdTe/CdTe superlattices, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The layers were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). Photoconductor devices were processed and their spectral response was also measured to demonstrate their applicability in the VLWIR region.
Specially designed mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1-xCdxTe) p-ν-n+ heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on CdTe/Si and CdZnTe (211)B-oriented substrates for infrared photo-detector operation at near room temperature. Growth of this structure requires precise control over the crystal quality, compositional profiles, and donor and acceptor doping levels. The doping levels and density of Shockley-Read-Hall centers in the absorber layer must be low enough to realize the benefits of Auger suppression under non-equilibrium device operation. In order to avoid possible contamination from chemical compounds used in traditional substrate mounting methods, non-contact (In-free) substrate mounting was used to grow the structures. High-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was implemented to develop a substrate thermocouple temperature ramping curve that maintains a constant epilayer temperature. The structures were characterized by FTIR, x-ray diffraction, and temperature dependent Hall measurements. High operating temperature (HOT) detectors were fabricated on these materials and showed good room-temperature response.