Five programs, i.e. ASTER, GOSAT, GCOM-W1, GPM and ALOS-2 are going on in Japanese Earth Observation
programs. ASTER has lost its short wave infrared channels. AMSR-E stopped its operation, but it started its operation
from Sep. 2012 with slow rotation speed. It finally stopped on December 2015. GCOM-W1 was launched on 18, May,
2012 and is operating well as well as GOSAT. ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was successfully launched
on 24th Jan. 2006. ALOS carries three instruments, i.e., PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo
Mapping), AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic
Aperture Radar). Unfortunately, ALOS has stopped its operation on 22nd, April, 2011 by power loss. GOSAT
(Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite) was successfully launched on 29, January, 2009. GOSAT carries 2 instruments,
i.e. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI). The main sensor is a Fourier
transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0.76 to 15 μm region with 0.2 to 0.5 cm-1 resolution. SMILES (Superconducting
Millimeter wave Emission Spectrometer) was launched on September 2009 to ISS and started the
observation, but stopped its operation on April 2010. GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite was launched on
Feb. 2014. GPM is a joint project with NASA and carries two instruments. JAXA has developed DPR (Dual frequency
Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. ALOS F/O satellites are divided into two satellites, i.e. SAR
and optical satellites. The first one of ALOS F/O is called ALOS 2 and carries L-band SAR. It was launched on May
2014. JAXA is planning to launch follow on of optical sensors. It is now called Advanced Optical Satellite and the
planned launch date is fiscal 2019. Other future satellites are GCOM-C1 (ADEOS-2 follow on), GOSAT-2 and
EarthCare. GCOM-C1 will be launched on 2017 and GOSAT-2 will be launched on fiscal 2018. Another project is
EarthCare. It is a joint project with ESA and JAXA is going to provide CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar). EarthCare will be
launched on 2019.
The early stage of the water stressed forest shows the higher temperature before the spectral reflectance change. To
detect the water stressed forest, the satellite detected surface temperature is utilized. The day and night surface
temperature difference is the key factor of the detection, in the case of non-stressed forest the daytime surface
temperature suppress the latent heat increase and the nighttime surface temperature is almost same as the air temperature
at the surface, so that the water stress makes the daytime temperature increases. The day and night surface temperature
difference is primary affected by the forest water stress level. To remove the another effect to the temperature difference
such as the nighttime low air temperature in autumn, the modified day and night surface temperature difference is
defined for the forest water stress detection index. Using the day night surface temperature product from MODIS and the
latent heat flux dataset acquired at some sites of the AMERIFLUX, The water stressed forest is identified using the
proposed index. Also the numerical simulation for the sensitivity analysis of the proposed index is made and the
effectiveness of the index is clarified.
In the Northern hemisphere, the CO2 concentration in the warm season indicated anomalously high values in 2003, and low values in 2004. To investigate the reasons of the interannual variation, a numerical simulation using a land biosphere – atmosphere full couple GCM was carried out. Relationship between interannual variations of CO2 and those of the land surface elements was investigated. In 2003, high surface temperature and low soil wetness conditions in the Eurasian Continent and in North America, and low downward short wave radiation condition in East Asia, occurred in the warm season. It is considered that these climate conditions in 2003 induced relatively low GPP and NEP values in the
continental scale. Comparison of the simulation results of GCM with satellite data (MODIS and AMSR-E) was
performed concerning the remarkable interannual changes from 2003 to 2004. Global distributions of the seasonal
changes by the model almost agree with those by the satellite data regarding both the land surface temperature and the
soil moisture. The interannual changes of land surface temperature by the model agree well with those by the MODIS
data. As to the soil moisture, the regions exist where the interannual changes by the model disagree with those by the
AMSR-E data especially in the warm season. The values of elements calculated by the model are physically and
bioecologically consistent each other in the model. Therefore, the model results are useful as the relative information for
the validation of the global scale or regional scale products of satellite data estimated separately by each algorithm.
It is very important to watch the spatial distribution of vegetation biomass and changes in biomass over time,
representing invaluable information to improve present assessments and future projections of the terrestrial carbon cycle.
A space lidar is well known as a powerful remote sensing technology for measuring the canopy height accurately. This
paper describes the ISS(International Space Station)-JEM(Japanese Experimental Module)-EF(Exposed Facility) borne
vegetation lidar using a two dimensional array detector in order to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of tree
height due to sloped surface.
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch new Earth observation satellite GCOM-C1 in near
future. The core sensor of GCOM-C1, Second Generation Global Imager (SGLI) has a set of along track slant viewing
Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR). These multi-angular views aim to detect the structural information from
vegetation canopy, especially forest canopy, for estimating productivity of the vegetation. SGLI Land science team has
been developing the algorithm for above ground biomass, canopy roughness index, shadow index, etc.
In this paper, we introduce the ground observation method developed by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in
order to contribute the algorithm development and its validation. Mainly, multi-angular spectral observation method and
simple BRF model have been developed for estimating slant view response of forest canopy. The BRF model developed
by using multi-angular measurement has been able to obtain structural information from vegetation canopy. In addition,
we have conducted some observation campaigns on typical forest in Japan in collaboration with other science team
experienced with vegetation phenology and carbon flux measurement. Primary results of these observations are also be
For monitoring of global environmental change, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has made a new plan
of Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM). SGLI (Second Generation GLI) onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite,
which is one of this mission, provides an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR. Characteristic specifications of SGLI are
as follows; 1) 250m resolutions over land and area along the shore, 2) Three directional polarization observation (red and
NIR), and 3) 500m resolutions temperature over land and area along shore. These characteristics are useful in many
fields of social benefits. In addition, 51 products will be made by mainly 35 principal investigators. We introduce the
overview of GCOM-C1/SGLI science.
The Fourth Assessment Report of IPCC predicted that global warming is already happening and it should be caused from
the increase of greenhouse gases by the extension of human activities. These global changes will give a serious
influence for human society. Global environment can be monitored by the earth observation using satellite. For the
observation of global climate change and resolving the global warming process, satellite should be useful equipment and
its detecting data contribute to social benefits effectively. JAXA (former NASDA) has made a new plan of the Global
Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for monitoring of global environmental change. SGLI (Second Generation GLI)
onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite, which is one of this mission, provides an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR.
Characteristic specifications of SGLI are as follows; 1) 250 m resolutions over land and area along the shore, 2) Three
directional polarization observation (red and NIR), and 3) 500 m resolutions temperature over land and area along shore.
These characteristics are useful in many fields of social benefits. For example, multi-angular observation and 250 m high
frequency observation give new knowledge in monitoring of land vegetation. It is expected that land products with land
aerosol information by polarization observation are improved remarkably. We are studying these possibilities by ground
data and satellite data.
For a comprehensive vegetation monitoring and/or management, a good understanding of the distribution of the solar
radiation energy among components of this vegetation is needed. The energy received by the vegetation is measured by
spectroradiometers either at satellite elevations or near the ground (in situ measurements). In this study, in situ,
radiometric data and laser scanning techniques are combined, in order to evaluate the contribution of the vegetation
structure to the variability of canopy reflectance. Advanced processing laser techniques are not only an efficient tool for
the generation of physical models but also give information about the vertical structure of canopies (height, shape,
density) and their horizontal extension. To conduct this study, airborne multispectral radiation data and, laser pulse
returns are recorded from a low flying helicopter above the vegetation of a boreal forest. These measurements are used to
derive canopy optical and structural variables. The impact of the canopy 2-dimensional structural variability on the
distribution of the solar radiation reflected by plants of this area is discussed. The results obtained show that the laser
technology can be used for the selection of the most appropriate configuration of radiation measurements, and
optimization of canopy physical characteristics, in future airborne missions.
The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that many collectiveobservations gave a aspect of a global warming and other changes in the climate system. It is very important to understand thisprocess accurately, and to construct the model by whom an environmental change is accurately forecast. Future earthobservation using satellite data should monitor global climate change, and should contribute to social benefits. Especially, human activities has given the big impacts to earth environment. This is a very complex affair, and nature itself also impacts the clouds,namely the seasonal variations. JAXA (former NASDA) has the plan of the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) formonitoring of global environmental change. SGLI (Second Generation GLI) onboard GCOM-C (Climate) satellite, which is one of this mission, is an optical sensor from Near-UV to TIR. SGLI can provide the various high accuracy products of aerosol, cloud information, various biophysical parameters (Biomass, Land Cover, Albedo, NPP, Water Stressed Vegetation, LST, etc.), coastal information (CDOM, SS, PAR, CHL, SST, etc.), and cryospheric information (Albedo, Snow/Ice Cover, NDII, Sea ice type, Snow Grain Size, NDSI, Snow Surface Temperature, etc.). This paper shows the introduction of the unique aspects and characteristics of the next generation satellite sensor, SGLI/GCOM-C, and shows the preliminary research for this sensor.
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (former NASDA) has successfully launched a new Advanced Earth Orbiting Satellite (ADEOS-II) aboard an H-2A booster on December 14, 2002. ADEOS-II is designed to monitor global climactic change through researches of the Earth's environment. GLI, which is one of five sensors, has high potential for vegetation monitoring, and it will contribute to the future satellite sensor. GLI has 23 channels in VNIR which include 380nm channel, 6 channels in SWIR, and 7 channels in MTIR. And this sensor has two kinds of spatial resolution, which are 1km and 250m. GLI 380nm channel is very unique channel, which can be sensitive for aerosol over land.
GLI land higher level processing includes precise geometric correction, 16-day composite, atmospheric correction, and vegetation index (NDVI and EVI). However, GLI atmospheric correction for land is conducted for only Rayleigh scattering and Ozone absorption. Therefore, this atmospherically corrected NDVI is affected by aerosol over land. On the other hand, 380nm data has the capability of removal of aerosol over the land. The difference between TOA NDVI and the new NDVI subtracted 380nm can be a function of optical thickness of aerosol.
This paper shows that the evaluation of aerosol correction over the land by using GLI 380nm reflectance.
Regarding climate change, we have still large uncertainties to predict long-term variation, such as the global average temperature after 100 years. According to the report by Inter-governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), one of the main factors of the uncertainties are from lack of understanding the process between aerosols and clouds. In order to accelerate the understandings of the process, observation of the aerosol over land is crucial. On the other hand, from the monitoring point of view, we do not have sufficient data to distinguish the effect of human activities on and near the land. The results of previous mission; ADEOS-2 Global Imager (GLI) suggests the 1 km ground resolution is not enough for distinguish the effect of human activities, such as deforestation, land cover change, pollution in coastal area, and so on. In this study, we designed a new sensor of which main ground resolution is 250 m, has wide spectral range (0.38~12 miron), rather wide swath for global observation and polarimetry function. The sensor named Second generation GLI (SGLI) consists of two sensors. The first one is conventional push broom type imager for visible and near infrared region with polarimetry channels. The second one is whisk broom sensor for shortwave and thermal infrared. SGLI has 11 channels in VNIR and 6 channels in infrared at nadir position, 2 channels with 3 polarization angles for polarimetry. The total mass of the sensor is around 400 kg. The new JAXA standard bus will carry it on the sun synchronous polar orbit at 10:30, Local Time of Descending Node. The proposed launch year is 2011.
Propose of a new Vegetation Index is purposes. Ordinal vegetation Index can show intensity of vegetation on the ground. It can not show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Proposed vegetation index utilizes BRF property. It is generated from data from 2 orbit of satellite and be able to show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Principles of this index is coming from field observation using RC helicopter. Each vegetation canopy has different texture and roughness. New index, named BSI (Bi-directional reflectance Structure Index) shows difference of vegetation canopy. It is calculated by using the data of NOAA/AVHRR, ADEOS OCTS. ADEOS-II GLI can derive BSI.
Carbon is one of the most important element on the earth, and it can become with key of the mechanism of earth fluctuation. Also, it is said that vegetation plays an important role of the carbon circulation of biosphere-lithosphere-atmosphere. Therefore, it is needed for environment monitoring to understand plant productivity globally. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA; former NASDA) has successfully launched a new Advanced Earth Orbiting Satellite (ADEOS-II) aboard an H-2A booster on December 14, 2002. The ADEOS-II satellite is focused on monitoring of global climate change on the Earth. Four disiplinary components of the Earth system, namely atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and land, are monitored with five sensors onboard this satellite including the Global Imager (GLI). Unfortunately, the operation of ADEOS II satellite has stopped on October 24 of 2003, but very important VNIR/SWIR/MTIR data has been obtained in northern hemisphere for vegetation dynamics by GLI sensor. These data have enough capability to monitor the density and vigor of green vegetation. GLI data has high potential for vegetation monitoring, and it will contribute to the future satellite sensor. 23 channels are dedicated for land observations in the two spatial resolutions; channels 1, 5, 8, 13, 15, 17, 19, 24, 26, 27, 28(2km), 30, 31, 34, 35, and 36 are for 1 km resolution, and channels 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, and 29 are for 250 m resolution. This paper shows the preliminary evaluation of GLI land products for vegetation monitoring.
The concept study of new multi spectral imager has been showed. Multi spectral imager is the basic sensor for Earth remote sensing. The result of Global Imager (GLI) of Advanced Earth Observation Satellite -2 (ADEOS-2) showed us the various change of climate system. However, according to the progress of climate system change study, the reconsideration of observation channels is necessary. First, we studied the requirements of the next generation imager on the basis of GLI design considering the less observed parameters of the climate change. Then we found the necessity of the parameters related the human activities. Several parameters of each area, i.e., atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, are selected. For the atmosphere, aerosol over land is emphasized. For the ocean, coastal change observation is proposed. For the land, advanced vegetation index is proposed. For the cryosphere, impurity of snow is emphasized. For the observation purposes, the proposed imager requirements are including the multi-angle polarization observation. And the resolution requirements of most channels are changed from 1 km to 250m. As the result of preliminary engineering study, the imager consists of a push broom imager for Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) region, and a whisk broom imager for Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) and Thermal Infrared (TIR) region. Among the all channels, two channels, center wavelength 678 nm and 865 nm, are defined as multi-angle polarization observation channels. Each channel has fore, nadir, aft angles, also three polarization angles. The satellite orbit is about 800 km height sun-synchronous polar orbit to cover global area. The new sensor was named Second generation of Global Imager (SGLI). We are proposing to launch SGLI around 2010 on a satellite of Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM).
12 GCOM is the big mission that does global change monitoring and make the long term data sets for 15 years from satellite data. The GLI series sensor is one of core sensor of this mission. The first series GLI is installed in ADEOS-2 that is launched in 2001. Also, SGLI is installed to GCOM-B1 that is launched in 2006. SGLI is one of GLI series sensor. GLI series sensor is multiband medium spatial resolution imager such as MODIS. Those sensors are classified as general-purpose radiometers capable of serving various earth observation missions. The advancement of remote sensing technologies means that wide ranging remote sensing data is now available to make more accurate products regarding the middle as well as lower atmosphere, ocean, land and cryosphere. The SGLI sensor will be a multipurpose, multiband, medium resolution, visual infrared imager and an advanced version of the GLI. Its main characteristic will be the possession of many channels of which the wavelength specifications and field of view are optimized for a specific target.