The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) will be part of the first generation instrumentation suite for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). G-CLEF is a general purpose echelle spectrograph operating in the optical passband with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability. The measurement precision goal of G-CLEF is 10 cm/sec; necessary for the detection of Earth analogues. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and spectrograph support structures especially when considering the instrument’s operational environment. G-CLEF’s accuracy will be influenced by changes in temperature and ambient air pressure, vibration, and micro gravity-vector variations caused by normal telescope motions. For these reasons we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF’s spectrograph in a wellinsulated, vibration-isolated vacuum chamber in a gravity invariant location on GMT’s azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include; a limited space envelope, a thermal leakage ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology, and budget are also significant design drivers. G-CLEF will complete its Critical Design phase in mid-2018. In this paper, we discuss the design of GCLEF’s optical mounts and support structures including the choice of a low-CTE carbon-fiber optical bench. We discuss the vacuum chamber and vacuum systems. We discuss the design of G-CLEF’s insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which simultaneously maintain the spectrograph at milli-Kelvin level stability and limit thermal leakage into the telescope dome. Also discussed are micro gravity-vector variations caused by normal telescope slewing, their uncorrected influence on image motion, and how they are dealt with in the design. We discuss G-CLEF’s front-end assembly and fiber-feed system as well as other interface, integration and servicing challenges presented by the telescope, enclosure, and neighboring instrumentation. This work has been supported by the GMTO Corporation, a non-profit organization operated on behalf of an international consortium of universities and institutions: Arizona State University, Astronomy Australia Ltd, the Australian National University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Harvard University, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, the São Paulo Research Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, the University of Texas at Austin, Texas AM University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Chicago.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is one of the first instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The G-CLEF is a fiber fed, optical band echelle spectrograph that is capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurement. The G-CLEF Flexure Control Camera (FCC) is included as a part in the G-CLEF Front End Assembly (GCFEA), which monitors the field images focused on a fiber mirror to control the flexure and the focus errors within the GCFEA. The five optical components constituting the FCC are aligned on a common optical bench. The order of the optical train is: a collimator, neutral density filters, a focus analyzer, a reimaging camera barrel, and a detector module. The collimator receives the beam reflected by the fiber mirror and consists of a triplet lens. The neutral density filters are located just after the collimator to make it possible a broad range star brightness as a target or a guide. The tent prism focus analyzer is positioned at a pupil produced by the collimator and is used to measure a focus offset. The reimaging camera barrel includes two pairs of doublet lenses to focus the beam onto the CCD focal plane. The detector module is composed of a linear translator and a field de-rotator. In this article, we present the optical and mechanical detailed designs of the G-CLEF FCC.
The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute has developed NISS (Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history) as a scientific payload for the first next generation of small satellite, NEXTSat-1 in Korea. NISS is a NIR imaging spectrometer exploiting a Linear Variable Filter (LVF) in the spectral passband from 0.95 um to 2.5 um and with low spectral resolution of 20. Optical system consists of 150mm aperture off-axis mirror system and 8-element relay-lenses providing a field of view of 4 square degrees. Primary and secondary aluminum mirrors made of RSA6061 are precisely fabricated and all of the lenses are polished with infrared optics materials. In principle, the optomechanical design has to withstand the vibration conditions of the launcher and maintain optical performance in the space environment. The main structure and optical system of the NISS are cooled down to about 200K by passive cooling for our astronomical mission. We also cool the detector and the LVF down to about 90K by using a small stirling cooler at 200K stage. The cooling test for whole assembled body has shown that the NISS can be cooled down to 200K by passive cooling during about 80 hours. We confirmed that the optomechanical structure is safe and rigid enough to maintain the system performance during the cooling, vibration and thermal vacuum test. After the integration of the NISS into the NEXTSat-1, space environmental tests for the satellite were passed. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, assembly and test of the optomechanical structure for the NISS flight model.
The Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) was designed for high-throughput with the expectation of being a visitor instrument at progressively larger observing facilities. IGRINS achieves R∼45000 and > 20,000 resolution elements spanning the H and K bands (1.45-2.5μm) by employing a silicon immersion grating as the primary disperser and volume-phase holographic gratings as cross-dispersers. After commissioning on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, the instrument had more than 350 scheduled nights in the first two years. With a fixed format echellogram and no cryogenic mechanisms, spectra produced by IGRINS at different facilities have nearly identical formats. The first host facility for IGRINS was Lowell Observatory’s 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). For the DCT a three-element fore-optic assembly was designed to be mounted in front of the cryostat window and convert the f/6.1 telescope beam to the f/8.8 beam required by the default IGRINS input optics. The larger collecting area and more reliable pointing and tracking of the DCT improved the faint limit of IGRINS, relative to the McDonald 2.7-meter, by ∼1 magnitude. The Gemini South 8.1-meter telescope was the second facility for IGRINS to visit. The focal ratio for Gemini is f/16, which required a swap of the four-element input optics assembly inside the IGRINS cryostat. At Gemini, observers have access to many southern-sky targets and an additional gain of ∼1.5 magnitudes compared to IGRINS at the DCT. Additional adjustments to IGRINS include instrument mounts for each facility, a glycol cooled electronics rack, and software modifications. Here we present instrument modifications, report on the success and challenges of being a visitor instrument, and highlight the science output of the instrument after four years and 699 nights on sky. The successful design and adaptation of IGRINS for various facilities make it a reliable forerunner for GMTNIRS, which we now anticipate commissioning on one of the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes prior to the completion of the Giant Magellan Telescope.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an instrument that is being designed to exceed the state-of-the-art radial velocity (RV) precision achievable with the current generation of stellar velocimeters. It is simultaneously being designed to enable a wide range of scientific programs, prominently by operating to blue wavelengths (< 3500Å). G-CLEF will be the first light facility instrument on the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) when the GMT is commissioned in 2023. G-CLEF is a fiber-fed, vacuum-enclosed spectrograph with an asymmetric white pupil echelle design. We discuss several innovative structural, optical and control system features that differentiate G-CLEF from previous precision RV instruments.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph selected as the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) now under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. G-CLEF has been designed to be a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of G-CLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized exoplanets. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures especially when considering the instrument’s operational environment. The accuracy of G-CLEF’s PRV measurements will be influenced by minute changes in temperature and ambient air pressure as well as vibrations and micro gravity-vector variations caused by normal telescope slewing. For these reasons we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF’s spectrograph in a well-insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber in a gravity invariant location on GMT’s azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the above considerations must be managed while ensuring performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF’s optical mounts and support structures including the choice of a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) carbon-fiber optical bench to minimize the system’s sensitivity to thermal soaks and gradients. We discuss design choices made to the vacuum chamber geared towards minimize the influence of daily ambient pressure variations on image motion during observation. We discuss the design of G-CLEF’s insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which will maintain the spectrograph at milli-Kelvin level stability while simultaneously limiting thermal emissions into the telescope dome. Also discussed are micro gravity-vector variations caused by normal telescope slewing, their uncorrected influence on image motion, and how they are dealt with in the design. Finally, we discuss G-CLEF’s front-end assembly and fiber-feed system as well as other interface challenges presented by the telescope, enclosure and neighboring instrumentation.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is the very first light instrument of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The G-CLEF is a fiber feed, optical band echelle spectrograph that is capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurement. KASI (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) is responsible for Flexure Control Camera (FCC) included in the G-CLEF Front End Assembly (GCFEA). The FCC is a kind of guide camera, which monitors the field images focused on a fiber mirror to control the flexure and the focus errors within the GCFEA. The FCC consists of five optical components: a collimator including triple lenses for producing a pupil, neutral density filters allowing us to use much brighter star as a target or a guide, a tent prism as a focus analyzer for measuring the focus offset at the fiber mirror, a reimaging camera with three pair of lenses for focusing the beam on a CCD focal plane, and a CCD detector for capturing the image on the fiber mirror. In this article, we present the optical and mechanical FCC designs which have been modified after the PDR in April 2015.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) will be a cross-dispersed, optical band echelle spectrograph to be delivered as the first light scientific instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) in 2022. G-CLEF is vacuum enclosed and fiber-fed to enable precision radial velocity (PRV) measurements, especially for the detection and characterization of low-mass exoplanets orbiting solar-type stars. The passband of G-CLEF is broad, extending from 3500Å to 9500Å. This passband provides good sensitivity at blue wavelengths for stellar abundance studies and deep red response for observations of high-redshift phenomena. The design of G-CLEF incorporates several novel technical innovations. We give an overview of the innovative features of the current design. G-CLEF will be the first PRV spectrograph to have a composite optical bench so as to exploit that material’s extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, high in-plane thermal conductivity and high stiffness-to-mass ratio. The spectrograph camera subsystem is divided into a red and a blue channel, split by a dichroic, so there are two independent refractive spectrograph cameras. The control system software is being developed in model-driven software context that has been adopted globally by the GMT. G-CLEF has been conceived and designed within a strict systems engineering framework. As a part of this process, we have developed a analytical toolset to assess the predicted performance of G-CLEF as it has evolved through design phases.
The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a revolutionary instrument that exploits broad spectral coverage at high-resolution in the near-infrared. IGRINS employs a silicon immersion grating as the primary disperser, and volume-phase holographic gratings cross-disperse the H and K bands onto Teledyne Hawaii-2RG arrays. The use of an immersion grating facilitates a compact cryostat while providing simultaneous wavelength coverage from 1.45 - 2.5 μm. There are no cryogenic mechanisms in IGRINS and its high-throughput design maximizes sensitivity. IGRINS on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory is nearly as sensitive as CRIRES at the 8 meter Very Large Telescope. However, IGRINS at R≈45,000 has more than 30 times the spectral grasp of CRIRES* in a single exposure. Here we summarize the performance of IGRINS from the first 300 nights of science since commissioning in summer 2014. IGRINS observers have targeted solar system objects like Pluto and Ceres, comets, nearby young stars, star forming regions like Taurus and Ophiuchus, the interstellar medium, photo dissociation regions, the Galactic Center, planetary nebulae, galaxy cores and super novae. The rich near-infrared spectra of these objects motivate unique science cases, and provide information on instrument performance. There are more than ten submitted IGRINS papers and dozens more in preparation. With IGRINS on a 2.7m telescope we realize signal-to-noise ratios greater than 100 for K=10.3 magnitude sources in one hour of exposure time. Although IGRINS is Cassegrain mounted, instrument flexure is sub-pixel thanks to the compact design. Detector characteristics and stability have been tested regularly, allowing us to adjust the instrument operation and improve science quality. A wide variety of science programs motivate new tools for analyzing high-resolution spectra including multiplexed spectral extraction, atmospheric model fitting, rotation and radial velocity, unique line identification, and circumstellar disk modeling. Here we discuss details of instrument performance, summarize early science results, and show the characteristics of IGRINS as a versatile near-infrared spectrograph and forerunner of future silicon immersion grating spectrographs like iSHELL<sup>2</sup> and GMTNIRS.<sup>3</sup>
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability that will be a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). G-CLEF has a PRV precision goal of 40 cm/sec (10 cm/s for multiple measurements) to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zones of sun-like stars<sup>1</sup>. This precision is a primary driver of G-CLEF’s structural design. Extreme stability is necessary to minimize image motions at the CCD detectors. Minute changes in temperature, pressure, and acceleration environments cause structural deformations, inducing image motions which degrade PRV precision. The instrument’s structural design will ensure that the PRV goal is achieved under the environments G-CLEF will be subjected to as installed on the GMT azimuth platform, including: <ul>
Millikelvin (0.001 °K) thermal soaks and gradients
10 millibar changes in ambient pressure
Changes in acceleration due to instrument tip/tilt and telescope slewing
Carbon fiber/cyanate composite was selected for the optical bench structure in order to meet performance goals. Low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and high stiffness-to-weight are key features of the composite optical bench design. Manufacturability and serviceability of the instrument are also drivers of the design. <p> </p>In this paper, we discuss analyses leading to technical choices made to minimize G-CLEF’s sensitivity to changing environments. Finite element analysis (FEA) and image motion sensitivity studies were conducted to determine PRV performance under operational environments. We discuss the design of the optical bench structure to optimize stiffness-to-weight and minimize deformations due to inertial and pressure effects. We also discuss quasi-kinematic mounting of optical elements and assemblies, and optimization of these to ensure minimal image motion under thermal, pressure, and inertial loads expected during PRV observations.
The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an optical-band echelle spectrograph that has been selected as
the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). G-CLEF is a general-purpose, high dispersion
spectrograph that is fiber fed and capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurements. The G-CLEF Concept
Design (CoD) was selected in Spring 2013. Since then, G-CLEF has undergone science requirements and instrument
requirements reviews and will be the subject of a preliminary design review (PDR) in March 2015. Since CoD review
(CoDR), the overall G-CLEF design has evolved significantly as we have optimized the constituent designs of the major
subsystems, i.e. the fiber system, the telescope interface, the calibration system and the spectrograph itself. These
modifications have been made to enhance G-CLEF’s capability to address frontier science problems, as well as to
respond to the evolution of the GMT itself and developments in the technical landscape. G-CLEF has been designed by
applying rigorous systems engineering methodology to flow Level 1 Scientific Objectives to Level 2 Observational
Requirements and thence to Level 3 and Level 4. The rigorous systems approach applied to G-CLEF establishes a well
defined science requirements framework for the engineering design. By adopting this formalism, we may flexibly update
and analyze the capability of G-CLEF to respond to new scientific discoveries as we move toward first light. G-CLEF
will exploit numerous technological advances and features of the GMT itself to deliver an efficient, high performance instrument, e.g. exploiting the adaptive optics secondary system to increase both throughput and radial velocity
IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer) is a high resolution wide-band infrared spectrograph developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). This spectrograph has H-band and K-band science cameras and a slit viewing camera, all three of which use Teledyne's λ<sub>c</sub>~2.5μm 2k×2k HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG CMOS detectors. The two spectrograph cameras employ science grade detectors, while the slit viewing camera includes an engineering grade detector. Teledyne's cryogenic SIDECAR ASIC boards and JADE2 USB interface cards were installed to control those detectors. We performed experiments to characterize and optimize the detector systems in the IGRINS cryostat. We present measurements and optimization of noise, dark current, and referencelevel stability obtained under dark conditions. We also discuss well depth, linearity and conversion gain measurements obtained using an external light source.
The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a compact high-resolution near-infrared cross-dispersed
spectrograph whose primary disperser is a silicon immersion grating. IGRINS covers the entire portion of the
wavelength range between 1.45 and 2.45μm that is accessible from the ground and does so in a single exposure with a
resolving power of 40,000. Individual volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings serve as cross-dispersing elements for
separate spectrograph arms covering the H and K bands. On the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at the McDonald
Observatory, the slit size is 1ʺ x 15ʺ and the plate scale is 0.27ʺ pixel. The spectrograph employs two 2048 x 2048
pixel Teledyne Scientific and Imaging HAWAII-2RG detectors with SIDECAR ASIC cryogenic controllers. The
instrument includes four subsystems; a calibration unit, an input relay optics module, a slit-viewing camera, and nearly
identical H and K spectrograph modules. The use of a silicon immersion grating and a compact white pupil design allows
the spectrograph collimated beam size to be only 25mm, which permits a moderately sized (0.96m x 0.6m x 0.38m)
rectangular cryostat to contain the entire spectrograph. The fabrication and assembly of the optical and mechanical
components were completed in 2013. We describe the major design characteristics of the instrument including the
system requirements and the technical strategy to meet them. We also present early performance test results obtained
from the commissioning runs at the McDonald Observatory.