A three-dimensional stereoscopic imaging modality (3D-SIM) based on a single optical channel and detector was developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional 3D-SIM. It produces 3-D stereoscopic images by adjusting the angle of a transparent rotating deflector (TRD) to generate disparity between left and right images. The angular effect of the TRD was demonstrated to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method in 3-D stereoscopic image generation. Results indicate that image disparity increased as a function of the rotation angles of the TRD, while maintaining adequate 3-D perception. These results are expected to facilitate the practical use of a 3D-SIM in medicine.
Various optical tissue phantoms (OTP) have been developed and utilized for the performance test of optical device and for <i>in vitro</i> human skin experiments. Solid OTPs have advantages such as semi-permanent use, convenience of experimental use, and easiness of storage. However, it is difficult to fabricate epidermis layer with an extremely thin layer of about few μm thickness. This study
suggests a spin coating method to fabricate a thin layer which is similar to epidermis layer thickness of human skin (about 50 μm). By controlling specific parameters such as the concentration of matrix solution and the spin velocity for spin coating, we could design a solid OTP with extremely thin layer of about few μm and a good degree of planarization. Quantitative analysis was performed to
evaluate both the spin velocity and the concentration of OTP matrix solution used to control specific thickness of OTP. By using optimal combination of parameters a specific thin layered OTP was fabricated with a thickness of less than 50 μm. In further studies, optimal combination of parameters needs to be studied to fabricate desired thickness of layer, depending on purpose.
In this study, we quantitatively analyzed 5-ALA induced fluorescent images of actinic keratosis using digital fluorescent color and hyperspectral imaging modalities. UV-A was utilized to induce fluorescent images and actinic keratosis (AK) lesions were demarcated from surrounding the normal region with different methods. Eight subjects with AK lesion were participated in this study. In the hyperspectral imaging modality, spectral analysis method was utilized for hyperspectral cube image and AK lesions were demarcated from the normal region. Before image acquisition, we designated biopsy position for histopathology of AK lesion and surrounding normal region. Erythema index (E.I.) values on both regions were calculated from the spectral cube data. Image analysis of subjects resulted in two different groups: the first group
with the higher fluorescence signal and E.I. on AK lesion than the normal region; the second group with lower fluorescence signal and without big difference in E.I. between two regions. In fluorescent color image analysis of facial AK, E.I. images were calculated on both normal and AK lesions and compared with the results of hyperspectral imaging modality. The results might indicate that the different intensity of fluorescence and E.I. among the subjects with AK might be interpreted as different phases of morphological and metabolic changes of AK lesions.
We introduce a multimodal facial color imaging modality that provides a conventional color image, parallel and cross-polarization color images, and a fluorescent color image. We characterize the imaging modality and describe the image analysis methods for objective evaluation of skin lesions. The parallel and cross-polarization color images are useful for the analysis of skin texture, pigmentation, and vascularity. The polarization image, which is derived from parallel and cross-polarization color images, provides morphological information of superficial skin lesions. The fluorescent color image is useful for the evaluation of skin chromophores excited by UV-A radiation. In order to demonstrate the validity of the new imaging modality in dermatology, sample images were obtained from subjects with various skin disorders and image analysis methods were applied for objective evaluation of those lesions. In conclusion, we are confident that the imaging modality and analysis methods should be useful tools to simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions in dermatology.
In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the
treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and
hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A
induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun
damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate
various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system,
which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image,
and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image
analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to
comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color
imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant
tool in dermatology.