Variations in the mechanical properties of the extracellular environment can alter important aspects of cell function such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. However, many of the techniques available to study these effects lack the ability to characterise cell-to-cell and cell-to-environment interactions on the microscopic scale in three dimensions (3D). Quantitative micro-elastography (QME) is an extension of compression optical coherence elastography that utilizes a compliant layer with known mechanical properties to estimate the axial stress at the tissue surface, which combined with axial strain, is used to map the 3D microscale elasticity of tissue into an image. Despite being based on OCT, limitations in post-processing techniques used to determine axial strain prevented QME to quantify the elasticity of individual cells. In this study we extend the capability of QME to present, to the best of our knowledge, the first images of the elasticity of cells and their environment in 3D over millimeter field-of-views. We improve the accuracy and resolution of QME by incorporating an efficient, iterative solution to the inverse elasticity problem using adjoint elasticity equations to enable QME to visualize individual cells for the first time. We present images of human stem cells embedded in soft gelatin methacryloyl (GelMa) hydrogels and demonstrate these cells elevate the stiffness of the GelMa from 3-kPa to approximately 25-kPa. Our QME system is developed using commercially available components that can be readily made available to biologists, highlighting the potential for QME to emerge as an important tool in the field of mechanobiology.