The optical surface deviation of the lens can directly affect the quality of the optical system.In order to effectively and accurately detect the surface shape, an optical surface on-line detection system based on polarization interference technology is designed and developed. The system is based on Tyman-Green interference optical path, join the polarization interference measuring technology. Based on the theoretical derivation of the optical path and the ZEMAX software simulation, the experimental optical path is constructed. The parallel light is used to detect the concave lens. The parallel light is used as the light source, the size of the polarization splitting prism, detection radius of curvature, the relations between and among the size of the lens aperture, a detection range is given.