The laser-induced damage of GaAs/Ge single heterojunction solar cells is investigated. The solar cells were irradiated by a continuous wave laser at the wavelength of 532 nm. Results indicate that the GaAs/Ge solar cells would mostly be damaged when laser is focused on its grid lines. Theoretically, the continuous wave laser at the wavelength of 532 nm is absorbed at the surface of solar cells. The continual temperature rise decomposed the material GaAs and melted the material Ge. The melted metal Ge connected the solar cells grid lines and the rear electrode, the solar cell became completely invalid. The major damage of continuous wave mainly comes from both the thermal melting and the thermal stress effects. The huge temperature gradient on the surface of the solar cells generated the crack, and even rupture. Concentric iridescent ring appeared on the damaged surfaces when observed with an optical microscope(OM) of broad spectrum. The damaged surface film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and the Contour Meter. The component of the concentric iridescent is GeO2 film, when the light irradiated on the film and interfered, the concentric iridescent generated. The different ring indicated the thickness of oxide was different. When the film was corroded by HCl, the iridescent disappeared. The formation mechanism of the film and the cause of the concentric iridescent ring were analyzed. These experimental conclusions are tested and verified by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
A new approach is presented to reduce turbulence-induced scintillation by use of a phase-locked beams array composed of linearly polarized beams with different polarization angles. The noninterference of orthogonal polarizations suggests that the beams array mentioned above can act effectively as a two-mode partially coherent beam, and the percentage of a single mode is controllable by changing the polarization angles of the beams. Numerical calculation using a multiple-phase screen method is performed to analyze the on-axis scintillation index σI2 and mean received intensity 〈I〉 for the beams array propagating through weak, moderate, and strong turbulence. The effects of different polarization angles on σI2 and 〈I〉 at the receiver are studied. When the turbulence is weak, numerical calculations show that both σI2 and 〈I〉 are closely related to the polarization angles of the beams. And there will be a smaller scintillation index for a phase-locked beams array comprising beams with different polarization angles as compared to a uniformly polarized beams array. As the beams are phase-locked, the mean received intensity provided by them is larger than that provided by an incoherent beams array. For it is quite easy to change the polarization angles, phase-locked beams array comprising beams with different polarization angles can be a promising source in the applications that need a balance between scintillation and mean received intensity in weak turbulence conditions. When the turbulence is moderately strong, incoherent beams array is actually a better choice, because the scintillation index is smaller and the mean received intensity is as much, compared to a phase-locked beams array.
Single-heterogeneous junction GaAs/Ge solar cells induced by 532nm laser with the pulse width of 12ns are investigated. Results indicate that the GaAs/Ge solar cells would mostly be damaged when laser is focused on its grid lines. Its surface damage morphology initially occurs at 0.35J/cm2 by the single laser pulse with nanosecond duration. Theoretically, the nanosecond laser pulse leaded damage mainly comes from both the thermal and the mechanical effects. These experimental conclusions are tested and verified by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.