We are studying an improved DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) program, Super DIOS, which is accepted for establishing the Research Group in ISAS/JAXA, for a launch year after 2030. The aim of Super DIOS is an X-ray quantitative exploration of ”dark baryon” over several scales from circumgalactic medium, cluster outskirt to warm-hot intergalactic medium along the Cosmic web with mapping redshifted emission lines from mainly oxygen and other ions. These observations play key roles for investigating the physical condition, such as the energy flow and metal circulation, of most baryons in the Universe. This mission will perform wide field X-ray spectroscopy with a field of view of about 0.5–1 degree and energy resolution of a few eV with TES microcalorimeter, but with much improved angular resolution of about 10–15 arcseconds. We will also consider including a small gamma-ray burst monitor and a fast repointing system. We will have an international collaboration with US and Europe for all the onboard instruments.
We are developing an x-ray imaging spectrometer for Super DIOS satellite mission, a future x-ray observatory, planned by JAXA, to be launched in 2030’s. Super DIOS will reveal the nature of the missing baryon in the warm-hot intergalactic medium because of its fine energy and angular resolution, large eﬀective area and large field of view. A main detector on-board Super DIOS consists of a transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array of over 30,000 pixels working at a temperature below 100 mK and it poses a considerable technical diﬃculty to the readout. A microwave superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing is promising technique and expected to achieve a large scale readout of more than 30,000 pixels. We describe our development of a 40-channel microwave SQUID multiplexer with low-noise characteristics∗ and a demonstration of simultaneously reading out 40-pixel TESs. Finally, we discuss a future prospect and a feasibility of reading out an array of more than 30,000 pixels.
We are working on an updated program of the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor), called Super DIOS. We keep the main aim of searching for dark baryons in the form of warmhot intergalactic medium (WHIM) with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The mission will detect redshifted emission lines from OVII, OVIII and other ions, leading to an overall understanding of the physical nature and spatial distribution of dark baryons as a function of cosmological timescale. We are working on the conceptual design of the satellite and onboard instruments, with a provisional launch time in the early 2030s. The major changes will be improved angular resolution of the X-ray telescope and increased number of TES calorimeter pixels. Super DIOS will have a 10-arcsecond resolution and a few tens of thousand TES pixels. Most contaminating X-ray sources will be resolved, and the level of diffuse X-ray background will be reduced after subtraction of point sources. This will give us very high sensitivity to map out the WHIM in emission. The status of the spacecraft study will be presented: the development plan of TES calorimeters, on-board cooling system, X- ray telescope, and the satellite system. The previous study results for DIOS and technical achievements reached by the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission provide baseline technology for Super DIOS. We will also consider large scale international collaboration for all the on-board instruments.