LiteBIRD is a candidate for JAXA’s strategic large mission to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization over the full sky at large angular scales. It is planned to be launched in the 2020s with an H3 launch vehicle for three years of observations at a Sun-Earth Lagrangian point (L2). The concept design has been studied by researchers from Japan, U.S., Canada and Europe during the ISAS Phase-A1. Large scale measurements of the CMB B-mode polarization are known as the best probe to detect primordial gravitational waves. The goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) with precision of r < 0:001. A 3-year full sky survey will be carried out with a low frequency (34 - 161 GHz) telescope (LFT) and a high frequency (89 - 448 GHz) telescope (HFT), which achieve a sensitivity of 2.5 μK-arcmin with an angular resolution 30 arcminutes around 100 GHz. The concept design of LiteBIRD system, payload module (PLM), cryo-structure, LFT and verification plan is described in this paper.
We present our design and development of a polarization modulator unit (PMU) for LiteBIRD space mission. LiteBIRD is a next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization satellite to measure the primordial B-mode. The science goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with the sensitivity of δ<i>r </i>< 10<sup>-3</sup>. The baseline design of LiteBIRD is to employ the PMU based on a continuous rotating half-wave plate (HWP) at a telescope aperture with a diameter of 400 mm. It is an essential for LiteBIRD to achieve the science goal because it significantly reduces detector noise and systematic uncertainties. The LiteBIRD PMU consists of a multi-layered sapphire as a broadband achromatic HWP and a mechanism to continuously rotate it at 88 rpm. The whole system is maintained at below 10K to minimize the thermal emission from the HWP. In this paper, we discuss the current development status of the broadband achromatic HWP and the cryogenic rotation mechanism.
LiteBIRD is a satellite project to measure the polarization of the CMB with an unprecedented accuracy. LiteBIRD observes all sky for three years at the sun-earth second Lagrange point. The goal of LiteBIRD is to observe the B-mode polarization at large angular scales and to measure the tensor-to-scaler ratio r with an accuracy less than 0.001, exploring the energy scale of the inflation. In order to mitigate the system 1/f noise and systematics, we plan to use continuous rotating half-wave plates (HWPs) as a polarization modulator at each aperture of two telescopes. One of the telescopes, called a low frequency telescope (LFT), covers the frequency range from 34 to 270 GHz, requiring the HWP to have a high modulation efficiency in the wide bandwidth. We employ a Pancharatnam-type achromatic HWP (AHWP) to achieve the broadband coverage. The AHWP consists of nine layer stacked HWPs with the optic axes mutually rotated by the angles optimized for the LFT bandwidth. In this paper, we report our development status of the nine layer AHWP and measurement results on the modulation efficiency and the phase as a function of frequency.
LiteBIRD is a space-borne project for mapping the anisotropy of the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The project aims to measure the B-mode pattern in a large angular scale to test the cosmic inflation theory. It is currently in the design phase lead by an international team of Japan, US, Canada, and Europe. We report the current status of the design of the electrical architecture of the payload module of the satellite, which is based on the heritages of other cryogenic space science missions using bolometers or microcalorimeters.
The LiteBIRD satellite aims at detecting a signature imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by the primordial gravitational wave predicted in inflation, which is an exponentially expanding era before the hot big bang. The extraction of such weak spiral polarization patterns requires the precise subtraction of our Galaxy’s foreground emission such as the synchrotron and the dust emission. In order to separate them from the CMB by using their spectral shape differences, LiteBIRD covers a wide range of observing frequencies. The main telescope, Low Frequency Telescope (LFT), covers the CMB peak frequencies as well as the synchrotron emission. Based on the required sizes of optical elements in the LFT, an order of one meter, the telescope will consist of reflectors rather than lenses since the latter is limited in size availabilities of the corresponding materials. The image quality analysis provides the requirements of reflector surface shape errors within 30um rms. The requirement on surface roughness of 2μm rms is determined from the reflectance requirement. Based on these requirements, we have carried out tradeoff studies on materials used for reflectors and their support structures. One possibility is to athermalize with aluminum, with the expected thermal contract of 0.4% from room temperature to 4-10 K. Another possibility is CFRP with cyanate resin, which is lighter and has negligibly small thermal contraction. For the reflector surface shape measurements including in low temperature, photogrammetry is a strong candidate with suitable accuracy and dynamic range of measurements.
LiteBIRD aims to detect the footprint of the primordial gravitational wave on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in a form of polarization pattern called B mode. In order to separate CMB from the Galactic emission, our
measurements cover 35 GHz to 450 GHz. The LiteBIRD optics consists of two telescopes: a crossed Dragone type for
lower frequencies, which provides a compact configuration with a wide field of view, and a refractor type for higher frequencies. The whole optical system is cooled down to around 5 K to minimize the thermal emission. We use two kinds of approaches of designing calculations as well as the experimental confirmation particularly for the lower