XUV pulses at 26.2 nm wavelength were applied to induce graphitization of diamond through a non-thermal solid-to-solid phase transition. This process was observed within poly-crystalline diamond with a time-resolved experiment using ultrashort XUV pulses and cross correlated by ultrashort optical laser pulses. This scheme enabled for the first time the measurement of a phase transition on a timescale of ~150 fs. Excellent agreement between experiment and theoretical predictions was found, using a dedicated code that followed the non-equilibrium evolution of the irradiated diamond including all transient electronic and structural changes. These observations confirm that ultrashort XUV pulses can induce a non-thermal ultrafast solid-to-solid phase transition on a hundred femtosecond timescale.