The speed of light is an important physical parameter. Currently it is a common belief of the constance of the speed of light regardless of the relative velocity between the source and the observer. Because the speed of light is very fast, if the relative velocity is small compared with the speed of light, it is difficult to detect the effect of the relative velocity on the measurement of the speed of light. In this paper we present a method of comparing the speeds of starlight and the light emitting from a terrestrial source. We use a telescope to collect the light from the star having significant relative velocity with respect to the earth, e.g. Capella. Then we modulate the starlight and the light emitted from the local source into pulses i.e. these pulses leave the modulator simultaneously. After travelling 4.2 km, these pulses are detected by a receiver. If the starlight and the terrestrial light have the same speed, then these pulses must arrive at the receiver at the same time. Our results show that the arrival times of the pulses of starlight are different from that of the local light. For example, the Capella is leaving away from the earth. The Capella pulses arrive later than the local light pulses. It indicates that the speed of Capella starlight is slower than the common believed value, c. The presented method uses one clock and one stick, so the clock synchronization problem and any physical unit transformation can be avoided.
Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays are widespread applied on hybrid photovoltaic devices because SiNW arrays can substitute the pyramid texture and anti-reflection coating due to its strong light trapping. Also, SiNWs can be prepared through a cost-efficient process of metal-assisted chemical etching. However, though longer SiNW arrays have lower reflectance, the top of long SiNWs aggregate together to make junction synthesis difficult for SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell. To control and analyze the effect of SiNW array morphology on hybrid solar cells, here we change the metal deposition condition for metal-assisted chemical etching to obtain different SiNW array morphologies. The experiment was separated to two groups, by depositing metal, say, Ag, before etching (BE) or during etching (DE). For group BE, Ag was deposited on n-type Si (n-Si) wafers by thermal evaporation; then etched by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and HF. For group DE, n-Si was etched by Ag<sup>+</sup> and HF directly. Ag was deposited on n-Si during etching process. Afterwards, residual Ag and SiO<sub>2</sub> were removed by HNO<sub>3</sub> and buffered HF, successively; then Ti and Ag were evaporated on the bottom of Si to be a cathode. Finally, SiNWs were stuck on the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) that was spincoated on the ITO coated glass to form SiNW/organic heterojunction. The results show that group BE has reflectance lower than that in group DE in solar spectrum. However, group BE has smaller power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.65% and short-circuit current density (J<sub>sc</sub>) of 24.94 mA/cm<sup>2</sup> than group DE of PCE of 9.47% and J<sub>sc</sub> of 26.81 mA/cm<sup>2</sup>.
Tunable semiconductor lasers have been under intense research interests for the past decades due to their vast
applications in optical networks, optical characterization, and optical sensing. The required device characteristics can be
very different for applying the tunable lasers to various areas. We classify the tunable lasers in terms of their tuning
characteristics and switching speed. Four kinds of tunable lasers are described in this paper to manifest the
application-dependent device structures and performance. The applications include the use of sampled grating based
lasers to form multi-wavelength laser arrays, cascaded distributed-feedback lasers for multi-gas sensors,
wavelength-selectable laser arrays for fast wavelength switching sources, and short cavity lasers for fault monitoring in
passive optical networks.