Photochemical properties of carbohydrates, including mono- and polysaccharides, as well as various kinds of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycolipids, take great attention last decades due to their significance for clarifying physical and chemical processes happening in biological molecules under irradiation. Understanding of excitation and ionization processes is important for interpretation of mass spectrometric (MS) experiments, which is the main instrument for quick and reliable analysis of biological samples. While polynucleotides and simple proteins can be easily studied by standard MS techniques (MALDI, ESI, and CID), carbohydrates and complicated biomolecules containing oligosaccharide residues are difficult to be ionized. Carbohydrates give a low signal yield. Their detection and analysis requires the special equipment and technology. Therefore, the development of new efficient methods for identification of carbohydrates in biological samples currently is the critical scientific and technical problem. In this work we study dissociation processes taking place in potassiated α- and β-glucose, which can be concerned as the modelling molecule for investigation of wide range of carbohydrates and carbohydrate fragments of biomolecules containing potassium ion as the ionization source. Here we compare deionization process with H<sub>2</sub>O and KOH elimination channels, as far as their competition with cross-ring dissociation processes. Potential energy surface were optimized by the density functional B3LYP/6-31G* method. Single point energy calculations in minima and transition state points were performed by G3(MP2,CCSD) ab initio method.
Studying the processes occurring in biological systems under irradiation is critically important for understanding the principles of working of biological systems. One of the main problems, which stimulate interest to the processes of photo-induced excitation and ionization of biomolecules, is the necessity of their identification by various mass spectrometry (MS) methods. While simple analysis of small molecules became a standard MS technique long time ago, recognition of large molecules, especially carbohydrates, is still a difficult problem, and requires sophisticated techniques and complicated computer analysis. Due to the large variety of substances in the samples, as far as the complexity of the processes occurring after excitation/ionization of the molecules, the recognition efficiency of MS technique in terms of carbohydrates is still not high enough. Additional theoretical and experimental analysis of ionization and dissociation processes in various kinds of polysaccharides, beginning from the simplest ones, is necessary. In our work, we extent previous theoretical and experimental studies of saccharides, and concentrate our attention to protonated glucose. In this article we paid the most attention to the cross-ring dissociation and water loss reactions due to their importance for identification of various isomers of hydrocarbon molecules (for example, distinguish α- and β-glucose).
The structure of intermetallic clusters Au<sub>12</sub>M (M=Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os) and features of their interaction with electron donors and acceptor atoms, i.e. H and F, were investigated making use computer calculation based of density functional theory. In was found that metal clusters with effective electron number equal to 18 have more symmetrical shape then that with a number of electrons differing from 18. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with silica was modeled by attachment of SiO<sub>4</sub>H groups and the connection of the electronic structure with electronic transitions in spaser is discussed.
The paper revealed the using of industrial production equipment ALTI "Karavella-1", "Karavella-1M", "Karavella-2" and "Karavella-2M" precision components of IEP production [1–4]. The basis for the ALTI using in the IEP have become the positive results of research and development of technologies of foil (0.01–0.2 mm) and thin sheets (0.3–1 mm) materials micromachining by pulsed radiation CVL [5, 6]. To assess the micromachining quality and precision the measuring optical microscope (UHL VMM200), projection microscope (Mitutoyo PV5100) and Carl Zeiss microscope were used.