An outline of the thermal vision systems curriculum for 5th year undergraduate students at the Branch of Department of Electro-Optical Devices, the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) attached in Central R&D Institute "Cyclone" is presented. Contents and some methodological aspects of the course "Thermal Vision Systems" teaching are described.
The generalized computer model of electro-optical systems COMOS has been used for the predicting and analyzing the performance of thermal imagers (TI). The identity of calculation and experimental target range performance tests was satisfactorily enough
In laser scanning devices using a projection method of measurement a narrow laser beam moves parallel to itself. If the velocity of scanning of the plane of the object under control is constant then the duration of the video signal which is formed behind the object will correspond to the object’s size lengthwise the direction of scanning. If the object is not flat the duration of the video signal will not correspond to the size of the object due to the fact that in the process of its formation there takes part the beam reflected from the surface of the object under measuring. Thus the error appears in the result of measurement. The error which depends on the object’s configuration and reflectivity may be rather significant. The formula of calculation of the error as a function of the object’s surface curvature and height of microroughness of the surface is presented in the work. There is suggested the way of compensation of the error which consists of covering synchronously to the movement of the scanning beam and by turns the halves of the sensitive areas of the bielement photodetector located symmetrically to the optical axis.
The test system for basic optical and electro-optical subjects checking has been worked out at the Optical Faculty, the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography. The system has been divided up into intrasubject and intersubject groups. Examples of these tests are appeared.
Principles of automatic two-coordinate stand building are discussed. A base of using the stand is direct frequentative high-accuracy measurements of fixed angles for various zenith directions. Results of these measurements are introduced into special microprocessor for composing system of simultaneous error equations. The solution of the system makes it possible for setting both general instrumental errors of horizontal and vertical angular measurements and separate components of these errors. The system of base directions is set by two-coordinate photoelectric autocollimators aiming to special prism standard. The standard is certified beforehand and used then periodically for verification of the spatial stability of the stand. Analysis of an accuracy has illustrated that the error of certification may be not exceeded by 0,3 angular second for frequentative measurements if the error of the autocollimators are less to 0,1 angular second.
Due to inconstant velocity of movement of laser scanning beam in the plane of measuring as well as due to defocusing brought by the scanner there is possible the appearance of rather meaningful errors. Formulas and diagrams for these errors' calculations are derived.
THe generalized computer model (GCM) has been developed as a tool to be use din electro-optical system (EOS) designing and prediction of their quality. Descriptions of radiators, environment and atmosphere submodels as well as EOS structure and figures of merit are parts of the model. The model is integrated software package for designing and parameter optimization of EOS. Five main steps of the model utilization in designing EOS are indicated.
It is important to train skill of realizing main optical and electro-optical principles. In the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cathography the modulus sets of typical optical, opto-mechanical and electro-optical blocks have been worked out toward this end. The modulus sets make it possible for designing many optical and electro-optical devices and processes as well as for creating metrological stands for investigation of these devices.
General principles of arranging laboratory practice for training undergraduates are considered. Connections between laboratory practical training and training in designer's skills are discussed. Specific equipment of MIIGAiK optical and electro-optical laboratories are described.
The comparison of two widespread optical schemes for high precision electro-optical tracking or measuring devices may be realized with the help of the criterion which is determined by the correlation of detector noise equivalent powers and principal optical scheme parameters, such as the entrance and exit pupil sizes, objective lens and condenser (Fabry lens) focal lengths, condenser transmittance coefficient.
The laser system for control of building contour and deformation consists of two parts. In the illuminator laser beam is divided into some parts. One of these parts works as reference ray or plane, and directions of others may be changed by the task program at the same time. A traditional instrument, for example, a theodolite or a phototheodolite, may be used as the measurement station of the system. The system permits to ensure a very high accuracy is we want to pass from one to another building components.
Main stages of electro-optical devices (EOD) energy calculation are presented. Generalized methodology of the energy calculation permits to find simply a set of important EOD parameters, for example, a threshold sensitivity, a detection range, construction parameters of an optical system, detector and electronic scheme.
An optimum combination of general professional and highly specialized education of opticians-designers is an acute problem in teaching opticians. The experience of the Optical Faculty, the Moscow Institute of Surveying, Aerophotography and Cartography (MIIGAiK)that it would be reasonable to train opticians - designers through a uniform curriculum for the first four years of studying with differentiation in narrow specialization for the last year and a half.
An analysis of the basic energy equation which describes the infrared system (IRS) operation is suggested as the basis for the adaptation methodology. First, it is necessary to do a sufficiently complete formula for the IRS figure of merit being adapted as the function of the IRS parameters. Secondly, it is useful to determine both a degree of various parameters influence on the adapted figure of merit and a possible range of its variation. Then it will be possible to evaluate the accuracy of the chosen adaptation method. As a simple example, the parametric adaptation of IRS sensitivity has been considered.