The paper provides the results of the analysis of a region-specific response of the surface temperature field in the Northern Hemisphere to the changes in solar activity. The surface temperature is selected as one of the main integral signs of climate change. Assimilation of the influence of solar activity on Earth changes depending on the location of a weather station and in the annual course. The hypothesis of the consistency of climatic processes is confirmed using the phase grouping algorithm. Climatic structures where temperature changes occur more consistently and response to external forcing influence differs are identified. Stations located in equatorial, sub-equatorial, and tropical belts and in zones affected by the largest marine centers of the climatic system activity are more sensitive to external influences.
The article describes an iterative parallel phase grouping algorithm for temperature field classification. The algorithm is based on modified method of structure forming by using analytic signal. The developed method allows to solve tasks of climate classification as well as climatic zoning for any time or spatial scale. When used to surface temperature measurement series, the developed algorithm allows to find climatic structures with correlated changes of temperature field, to make conclusion on climate uniformity in a given area and to overview climate changes over time by analyzing offset in type groups. The information on climate type groups specific for selected geographical areas is expanded by genetic scheme of class distribution depending on change in mutual correlation level between ground temperature monthly average.