Near-eye display users universally request larger fields of view for enhanced immersion, presence, and device utility. Unlike frame rate or device weight, field of view cannot be represented precisely as a single number. Quoting field of view as a diagonal, a carry-over from the display industry, could refer to either the monocular or stereo field of view and gives no indication of the field of view boundary shape. This work defines an unambiguous metric evaluation of field of view based on solid angle, accounting for eye relief, interpupillary distance, eye rotation, and device alignment. The approach allows optical system designers to identify weak points in the optics/display/rendering pipeline. To accompany modeling, a measurement scheme was developed to metrically compare field of view over various real-world user conditions. Best practices for visualizing and communicating field of view are also presented. This work reviews the methods used to increase field of view, with discussion of the monocular and binocular artifacts that arise in large field of view systems. The limitations and advantages of optical tiling, canting, and extreme distortion are described, using relevant examples in the commercial VR space. The fundamental tradeoffs between resolution, field of view, and optical quality over field are discussed, including a review of methods to maximize field of view without sacrificing on-axis resolution. Until display and optics technology can fully match the human visual system, the intermediate objective is to find the best experience match in field of view, resolution, and optical quality given existing hardware limitations. Qualitative assessments of the relative value of different regions of the human visual field will be provided.
Near-eye display performance is usually summarized with a few simple metrics such as field of view, resolution, brightness, size, and weight, which are derived from the display industry. In practice, near-eye displays often suffer from image artifacts not captured in traditional display metrics. This work defines several immersive near-eye display metrics such as gaze resolution, pupil swim, image contrast, and stray light. We will discuss these metrics and their trade-offs through review of a few families of viewing optics. Fresnel lenses are used in most commercial virtual reality near-eye displays in part due to their light weight, low volume and acceptable pupil swim performance. However, Fresnel lenses can suffer from significant stray light artifacts. We will share our measurements of several lenses and demonstrate ways to improve performance. Smooth refractive lens systems offer the option for lower stray-light viewing but usually at the cost of a much larger size and weight in order to get to the same pupil swim performance. This can be addressed by using a curved image plane but requires new display technology. Polarization-based pancake optics is promising and can provide excellent image resolution and pupil swim performance within an attractive form-factor. This approach, however, generally results in low light efficiency and poor image contrast due to severe ghosting. We will discuss some of the main limitations of that technology.
The short focal length of the mouse eye gives rise to an optically thick retina (50 D). If in addition, multiple wavelengths
are to be used simultaneously to image an arbitrary combination of retinal layers, the ≈ 10 D of longitudinal chromatic
aberration means a total of 60 D of vergence must be covered. This dictates that marginal rays will cover a wide range of
angles with respect to the optical axis at the pupil of a mouse (or murine) adaptive optics ophthalmoscope, in order to
section through the entire retina with any wavelength simultaneously. In this work, we discuss the compromises
associated with the design of a mouse adaptive optics ophthalmoscope using off-the-shelf spherical reflective and