In this study, a method for identifying the elastic material characteristics of a heterogeneous material from measured displacements is proposed. The virtual fields method is employed for determining the elastic material characteristics. The solid propellant is considered as heterogeneous materials for the test subject. An equation representing the distribution of the material properties of the solid propellant is obtained by Fick’s law, and the distribution is applied to the virtual fields method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by applying to displacement fields obtained using finite element analysis. Results show that the heterogeneous material properties can be obtained by the proposed method.