Three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is valuable for fruit quality evaluation. This study was aimed at developing phase analysis techniques for reconstruction of the 3-D surface of fruit from the pattern images acquired by a structuredillumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. Phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns, distorted by the fruit geometry, were acquired and processed through phase demodulation, phase unwrapping and other post-processing procedures to obtain phase difference maps relative to the phase of a reference plane. The phase maps were then transformed into height profiles and 3-D shapes in a world coordinate system based on phase-to-height and in-plane calibrations. A reference plane-based approach, coupled with the curve fitting technique using polynomials of order 3 or higher, was utilized for phase-to-height calibrations, which achieved superior accuracies with the root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.027- 0.033 mm for a height measurement range of 0-91 mm. The 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting technique was further tested on two reference blocks with known heights, resulting in relative errors of 3.75% and 4.16%. In-plane calibrations were performed by solving a linear system formed by a number of control points in a calibration object, which yielded a RMSE of 0.311 mm. Tests of the calibrated system for reconstructing the surface of apple samples showed that surface concavities (i.e., stem/calyx regions) could be easily discriminated from bruises from the phase difference maps, reconstructed height profiles and the 3-D shape of apples. This study has laid a foundation for using SIRI for 3-D shape measurement, and thus expanded the capability of the technique for quality evaluation of horticultural products. Further research is needed to utilize the phase analysis techniques for stem/calyx detection of apples, and optimize the phase demodulation and unwrapping algorithms for faster and more reliable detection.
Detection of fresh bruises in apples remains a challenging task due to the absence of visual symptoms and significant chemical alterations of fruit tissues during the initial stage after the fruit have been bruised. This paper reports on a new structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) technique for enhanced detection of fresh bruises in apples. Using a digital light projector engine, sinusoidally-modulated illumination at the spatial frequencies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 cycles/m was generated. A digital camera was then used to capture the reflectance images from ‘Gala’ and ‘Jonagold’ apples, immediately after they had been subjected to two levels of bruising by impact tests. A conventional three-phase demodulation (TPD) scheme was applied to the acquired images for obtaining the planar (direct component or DC) and amplitude (alternating component or AC) images. Bruises were identified in the amplitude images with varying image contrasts, depending on spatial frequency. The bruise visibility was further enhanced through post-processing of the amplitude images. Furthermore, three spiral phase transform (SPT)-based demodulation methods, using single and two images and two phase-shifted images, were proposed for obtaining AC images. Results showed that the demodulation methods greatly enhanced the contrast and spatial resolution of the AC images, making it feasible to detect the fresh bruises that, otherwise, could not be achieved by conventional imaging technique with planar or uniform illumination. The effectiveness of image enhancement, however, varied with spatial frequency. Both 2-image and 2-phase SPT methods achieved the performance similar to that by conventional TPD. SIRI technique has demonstrated the capability of detecting fresh bruises in apples, and it has the potential as a new imaging modality for enhancing food quality and safety detection.