The design, manufacture and characterization of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) configuration mirror system for high-throughput
nanofocusing down to 50 nm beam sizes are described. To maximize the system aperture whilst retaining
energy tunability, multilayer coated optics are used in conjunction with 2 dynamically figured mirror benders. This
approach, which has been developed at the ESRF for many years, allows the focusing performance to be optimized when
operating the system in the 13-25 keV photon energy range. Developments in the key technologies necessary for the
production of mirror bending systems with dynamic figuring behavior close to the diffraction limit requirements are
discussed. These include system optimization via finite element analysis (FEA) modeling of the mechanical behavior of
the bender-mirror combination, manufacturing techniques for precisely-shaped multilayer substrates, multilayer
deposition with steep lateral gradients and the stitching metrology techniques developed for the characterization and
figure optimization of strongly aspherical surfaces. The mirror benders have been integrated into a compact and stable
assembly designed for routine beamline operation and results of the initial performance of the system at the ESRF
ID22NI endstation are presented demonstrating routine focusing of 17 keV X-rays to sub-60 nm resolution.
At the ESRF Micro-Fluorescence, Imaging and Diffraction beamline ID22, X-Ray micro-tomography is a routine technique proposed to users for 3D microanalysis of various samples. The purpose of this work is to extend 3D micro-tomography in order to obtain <i>in-situ</i> 3D information about samples at increasing pure axial loads. We developed a new device that allows one to combine mechanical testing and micro-tomography. The device is optimised for low Gpa Young moduli like plastics or bone but can easily be adapted to higher values. In this paper we present first results obtained with animal and human bone samples to gain insight into the bone microcrack problem.
This paper describes the mechanical design of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror systems that have been developed at the ESRF over several years. These very compact and stable though flexible focusing devices for synchrotron x-ray beams are based on bending an initially flat, superpolished plate, which permits to vary the focusing conditions. Nowadays a whole family of mechanical benders exists at the ESRF that allows us to choose the most adapted system according to the properties defined by the experiment such as the energy and energy range, the focusing parameters such as magnification and focusing distance and the substrate coatings, <i>i.e. </i>single-layer mirrors or multilayers. The geometrical characteristics of these KB systems can be chosen in terms of focal distances ranging from 0.1 to 3 m and circular or elliptical bending radii from 20 to 1000m. Mirror substrates such as silicon or pyrex, single-layer or multilayer coatings require different motorisations and deformation systems. The very challenging requirements for mechanical resolution and sensitivity have led to the development of several generations of micro-motors. The ESRF has built a special multi-purpose micropusher that provides the required resolution and linearity, a thrust up to 80 N and finally a good position latching. Issues such as mounting interfaces, stress in the bent mirror and the dynamic bender, local mirror deformation and curvature stability had to be addressed and were solved. The ESRF has developed mirror clamping technologies controlled by mechanical and optical metrologies. The dynamic stability and reproducibility requirements to achieve a spot size variable from sub-micron to tens of microns required by various beamlines necessitate a very high degree of stiffness.