Building on a previously presented framework for a single engine simulator (OptiSPICE)
this paper will present models and techniques for modelling devices used in local area
networks utilizing wavelength division multiplexing, single-mode fiber and integrated
electronics. This paper will detail time-domain models of various elements that form
optical links in such a system. Detailed models based on physical rate equations will be
presented for laser sources and electro-optic modulators. A single mode fiber model
based on the Non-linear Schrodinger Equation and which includes multiple channel effects
will be presented. Finally, a model of an avalanche photo-diode using an electrical
diode and a photo-current which is proportional to the optical intensity at the input
will be described.
The final section of the paper will present results from a multi-channel optical
link. The initial part of each channel is comprised of a laser source and driver, an
optical gain/attenuation element and an electro-optical modulator driven by a bit stream
generator. An optical multiplexing element is then used to merge the optical channels
and this is connected to a single-mode fiber. At the end of the fiber an optical
splitter is used with optical filters to de-multiplex the optical signal and finally a
avalanche photo-diode and amplifier is used to terminate each channel.
These results demonstrate
the successful simulation of multi-channel optical links using the presented optoelectronic
simulation framework and models.
This paper presents efficient modeling of optical interference devices such as optical connectors and cross-couplers in a
SPICE<sup>1</sup> like optoelectronic simulation framework. This framework is based on formulating modified nodal analysis equations
that integrate electrical and optical elements in a single engine simulator. A significant difference in optical modeling
with respect to standard electrical spice simulation is the need to model optical interference. Efficient modeling, within
this framework, of devices based on interference effects is described in detail. Several examples using this framework
are presented. These examples include optical links, cross-couplers, Machzehnders, optical connectors and other optical
In this paper, an optical signal infrastructure using a novel simulation framework is presented for self-consistent optoelectronic
circuits and systems. This framework uses a formulation based on modified nodal analysis and can be used for
transient and small-signal analysis. A flexible representation of optical signals and elements is developed that is appropriate
for circuits/systems which incorporate both electrical and optical devices. With the correct choice of optical state variables
it is found that optical interference, reflection and coupling can be modeled efficiently. Optical models for multi-mode
fibers, optical connectors and cross-couplers are presented as examples of model development within the framework.
To illustrate the use of the framework, results from a number of optoelectronic circuits are presented. These examples
include optical links involving lasers, multi-mode fibers, optical connectors and photodiodes. Results from these examples
highlight the ability of the framework to handle a wide variety of optical effects and to simulate mixed electrical/optical
Planar Photonic Circuits can perform many useful functions in optical communications systems, such as wavelength division multilplexing (WDM), optical channel add/drop, fibre/waveguide coupling, and amplifier gain equalization. They perform these functions by the interaction of the device structure with the light inside them. There are very effective and proven numerical methods available for modelling this interaction, such as the Beam Propagation Method (BPM), the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, and coupled mode theory (CMT). However, these methods work on a microscopic level (typically the smallest distance is about 0.1 microns), but photonic circuits, on the other hand, can occupy an entire wafer (scale: 10 cm). The analysis must span 5 or more orders of magnitude in the change in scale. The successful analysis needs to combine the basic microscopic techniques with an approach at a more abstract, or system, level. It is interesting that software designed for the analysis of optical communication systems can be applied to planar photonic circuits. This paper shows an example of a practical photonic circuit, a lattice filter, that cannot be analysed by BPM alone. It will be demonstrated that when used with a system level analysis, the whole device can be simulated.
A novel fiber design has been proposed for a (+D) Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NZDSF). The obtained characteristics of this fiber (such as Petermann II-Mode Field Diameter, Group Delay, Group Velocity Dispersion, Dispersion Slope, and Effective Area) are in good agreement with the commercially available (+D) NZDSF with the trade name LEAF.
In the present paper we review the state of the art of two complementary propagation techniques with applications for integrated optics device modeling: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain and the Beam Propagation Method. In both cases we focus on their main features such as the types of propagation schemes and the material effects that can be modeled. In addition, we also consider a 2D mode solver based on a complex root finding procedure - a representative mode solving technique that is of significant interest for design and modeling of leaky mode based devices. Each of the methods is illustrated with appropriate simulation examples of devices and waveguide structures being of current research interest: photonic band gap structures, waveguide gratings, ARROW waveguides etc. The selected examples show the power of the methods as well as the consistency and the complementarity of their results when applied together.
This presentation will emphasize the current status of advanced design and simulation tools in photonics technology. The focus will be on Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) component and integrated optic circuits modeling, although some aspects of optical link simulations will also be discussed. A wide variety of numerical methods such as the Beam Propagation Method (BPM), the Coupled Mode Theory (CMT), the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM), and the Finite-Difference Time Domain Method (FDTDM) in their state-of-the-art implementation will be presented. The results from simulating selected photonic components will be discussed.
The beam propagation method has been widely used for waveguide optics modeling. Recently, the method has been implemented into user friendly software systems that are advanced design tools for photonic devices and integrated circuits. Considering the BPM_CAD software package, we discuss common elements of these systems including a layout editor, propagation and mode solvers, and analysis tools.