Composites have been extensively used in aero structure and become the predominate components in the new airframes. Thus, rapid and effective inspection for composite structures is highly desired in aerospace engineering in order to shorten the certificate cycle for new structures or provide safety guarantee for existing ones. In this paper, a laser based remote Lamb wave inspection system is presented and implemented on composite plates for simulated damage detection. The system employs pulsed laser (PL) and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for noncontact and remote Lamb wave actuation and wavefield sensing. A composite plate with simulated defect (surface bonded quartz rod) is inspected with the PL-SLDV laser system. Wave scattering are observed in the SLDV acquired wavefield and the damage is further evaluated with wavefield imaging and frequency wavenumber analysis. Potential application towards automatic PL Lamb wave excitation is also explored through employing an industry robotic arm towards rapid inspection.
Composites have been extensively used in aerospace engineering due to their advantages of light weight, high strength, and engineering design flexibility. Manufacturing defects such as wrinkle and porosity can affect the performance of the composites and may lead to failure in the end, while damage such as delamination, fiber fraction, and matrix cracking can directly cause failure of the composites. In this paper, a Lamb wave based nonintrusive nondestructive evaluation system, which employs piezoelectric transducer for actuation and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer for wavefield sensing, is presented for typical composite defect and damage inspection and evaluation. Two composite panels with different geometry (flat or curved) and with various embedded defects (wrinkle and delamination) are inspected using the nonintrusive Lamb wave system. Both the wrinkles and delamination are detected from the wavefield and approximately quantified through wavefield imaging methods.
Traditional Lamb wave structural health monitoring (SHM)/nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system employs contact type transducers such as PZT, ultrasonic transducers, and optical fibers. In application, transducer attachment and maintenance can be time and labor consuming. In addition, the use of couplant and adhesives can introduce additional materials on structures, and the interface coupling is often not well understood. To overcome these limitations, we proposed a fully non-contact NDE system by employing pulsed laser (PL) for Lamb wave actuation and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for Lamb wave sensing. The proposed system is implemented on aluminum plates. The PL Lamb wave excitation is calibrated, and the optimal parameters are obtained. Lamb wave modes are then characterized through 1D wavefield analysis. With the calibrated and characterized system, defect detection and evaluation are achieved on aluminum plates with simulated defects (surfaced-bonded quartz rod, and machine milled crack) through 1D and 2D inspection in both time-space and frequency-wavenumber domains.
In this paper we present a structural health monitoring (SHM) paradigm based on the simultaneous use of ultrasounds and electromechanical impedance (EMI) to monitor waveguides. The paradigm uses guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) in pitch-catch mode and EMI simultaneously. The two methodologies are driven by the same sensing/hardware/software unit. To assess the feasibility of this unified system an aluminum plate was monitored for varying damage location. Damage was simulated by adding small masses to the plate. The results associated with pitch-catch GUW testing mode were used in ultrasonic tomography, and statistical analysis was used to detect the damages using the EMI measurements. The results of GUW and EMI monitoring show that the proposed system is robust and can be developed further to address the challenges associated with the SHM of complex structures.