Pipeline leakage is an important security issue, which directly affects the normal operation of life and production. The development of optical fiber sensing technology is fast and must be the trend of pipeline monitoring. The research of pipeline leak characteristics based on optical fiber monitoring data will become more and more important. This paper puts forward a series of characteristic indicators of pipeline leakage. The characteristics of gas pipeline leakage and liquid pipeline leakage are compared and analyzed, and the commonness and individuality of pipeline leakage are studied, whose researches are proved through practical experiments.