For the purpose of image distortion caused by the oblique photography of a zoom lens aerial camera, a fast and accurate image autorectification and mosaicking method in a ground control points (GCPs)-free environment was proposed. With the availability of integrated global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement units, the camera’s exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) were solved through direct georeferencing. The one-parameter division model was adopted to estimate the distortion coefficient and the distortion center coordinates for the zoom lens to correct the lens distortion. Using the camera’s EOPs and the lens distortion parameters, the oblique aerial images specified in the camera frame were geo-orthorectified into the mapping frame and then were mosaicked together based on the mapping coordinates to produce a larger field and high-resolution georeferenced image. Experimental results showed that the orthorectification error was less than 1.80 m at an 1100 m flight height above ground level, when compared with 14 presurveyed ground checkpoints which were measured by differential GPS. The mosaic error was about 1.57 m compared with 18 checkpoints. The accuracy was considered sufficient for urgent response such as military reconnaissance and disaster monitoring where GCPs were not available.