KEYWORDS: Mammography, Computer aided diagnosis and therapy, Breast, Computer-aided diagnosis, Medical imaging, Image blending, Digital mammography, Tissues, Digital breast tomosynthesis, Image acquisition
Mammographic computer-aided detection (CADe) devices are typically first developed and assessed for a specific “original” acquisition system. When developers are ready to apply their CADe device to a mammographic acquisition system, they typically assess the device with images acquired using the system. Collecting large repositories of clinical images containing verified lesion locations acquired by a system is costly and time consuming. We previously developed an image blending technique that allows users to seamlessly insert regions of interest (ROIs) from one medical image into another image. Our goal is to assess the performance of this technique for inserting microcalcification clusters from one mammogram into another, with the idea that when fully developed, our technique may be useful for reducing the clinical data burden in the assessment of a CADe device for use with an image acquisition system. We first perform a reader study to assess whether experienced observers can distinguish between computationally inserted and native clusters. For this purpose, we apply our insertion technique to 55 clinical cases. ROIs containing microcalcification clusters from one breast of a patient are inserted into the contralateral breast of the same patient. The analysis of the reader ratings using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted clusters cannot be reliably distinguished from native clusters (area under the ROC curve = 0.58 ± 0.04). Furthermore, CADe sensitivity is evaluated on mammograms of 68 clinical cases with native and inserted microcalcification clusters using a commercial CADe system. The average by-case sensitivities for native and inserted clusters are equal, 85.3% (58/68). The average by-image sensitivities for native and inserted clusters are 72.3% and 67.6%, respectively, with a difference of 4.7% and a 95% confidence interval of [−2.1 11.6]. These results demonstrate the potential for using the inserted microcalcification clusters for assessing mammographic CADe devices.
Computer-aided detection (CADe) devices used for breast cancer detection on mammograms are typically first developed and assessed for a specific “original” acquisition system, e.g., a specific image detector. When CADe developers are ready to apply their CADe device to a new mammographic acquisition system, they typically assess the CADe device with images acquired using the new system. Collecting large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations and acquired by the new image acquisition system is costly and time consuming. Our goal is to develop a methodology to reduce the clinical data burden in the assessment of a CADe device for use with a different image acquisition system. We are developing an image blending technique that allows users to seamlessly insert lesions imaged using an original acquisition system into normal images or regions acquired with a new system. In this study, we investigated the insertion of microcalcification clusters imaged using an original acquisition system into normal images acquired with that same system utilizing our previously-developed image blending technique. We first performed a reader study to assess whether experienced observers could distinguish between computationally inserted and native clusters. For this purpose, we applied our insertion technique to clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) and the Breast Cancer Digital Repository (BCDR). Regions of interest containing microcalcification clusters from one breast of a patient were inserted into the contralateral breast of the same patient. The reader study included 55 native clusters and their 55 inserted counterparts. Analysis of the reader ratings using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicated that inserted clusters cannot be reliably distinguished from native clusters (area under the ROC curve, AUC=0.58±0.04). Furthermore, CADe sensitivity was evaluated on mammograms with native and inserted microcalcification clusters using a commercial CADe system. For this purpose, we used full field digital mammograms (FFDMs) from 68 clinical cases, acquired at the University of Michigan Health System. The average sensitivities for native and inserted clusters were equal, 85.3% (58/68). These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the inserted microcalcification clusters for assessing mammographic CAD devices.
Objective: This study utilizes fluorescence microscopy to assess the effect of the oxygen tension on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria of fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cells (FPAECs). Introduction: Hypoxia is a severe oxygen stress, which mostly causes irreversible injury in lung cells. However, in some studies, it is reported that hypoxia decreases the severity of injuries. In this study, ROS production level was examined in hypoxic FPAECs treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP, uncoupler). This work was accomplished by monitoring and quantifying the changes in the level of the produced ROS in hypoxic cells before and after PCP treatment. Materials and methods: The dynamic of the mitochondrial ROS production in two groups of FPAECs was measured over time using time-lapse microscopy. For the first group, cells were incubated in 3% hypoxic condition for 2 hours and then continuously were exposed to hypoxic condition for imaging as well. For the second group, cells were incubated in normal oxygen condition. Time lapse images of the cells loaded with Mito-SOX (ROS indicator) were acquired, and the red fluorescence intensity profile of the cells was calculated. Changes in the level of the fluorescence intensity profile while they are treated with PCP indicates the dynamics of the ROS level. Results: The intensity profiles of the PCP-treated cells in the first group showed 47% lower ROS production rate than the PCP-treated cells in the second group. Conclusion: Time lapse microscopy revealed that hypoxic cells have lower ROS generation while treated with PCP. Therefore, this result suggests that hypoxia decreased electron transport chain activity in uncoupled chain.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in facilitating signal transduction processes within the cell and modulating the injuries. However, the generation of ROS is tightly controlled both spatially and temporally within the cell, making the study of ROS dynamics particularly difficult. This study present a novel protocol to quantify the dynamic of the mitochondrial superoxide as a precursor of reactive oxygen species. To regulate the mitochondrial superoxide level, metabolic perturbation was induced by administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). The presented method was able to monitor and measure the superoxide production rate over time. Our results demonstrated that the metabolic inhibitor, potassium cyanide (KCN) induced a significant increase in the rate of superoxide production in mitochondria of fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cells (FPAEC). Presented method sets the stage to study different ROS mediated injuries in vitro.
The objective of this work was to design an automated image cytometry tool for determination of various retinal vascular parameters including extraction of features that are relevant to postnatal retinal vascular development, and the progression of diabetic retinopathy. To confirm the utility and accuracy of the software, retinal trypsin digest from TSP1-/- and diabetic Akita/+; TSP1-/- mice were analyzed. TSP1 is a critical inhibitor of development of retinopathies and lack of TSP1 exacerbates progression of early diabetic retinopathies. Loss of vascular cells of and gain more acellular capillaries as two major signs of diabetic retinopathies were used to classify a retina as normal or injured. This software allows quantification and high throughput assessment of retinopathy changes associated with diabetes.
Oxidative stress (OS), which increases during retinal degenerative disorders, contributes to photoreceptor cell loss. The
objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the metabolic state of the eye tissue in rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa by using the cryofluorescence imaging technique. The mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH and FADH2 are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels using optical techniques. The NADH redox ratio (RR), which is the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores (NADH/FAD), was used as a quantitative diagnostic marker. The NADH RR was examined in an established rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the P23H rat, and compared to that of control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and P23H NIR treated rats. Our results demonstrated 24% decrease in the mean NADH RR of the eyes from P23H transgenic rats compared to normal rats and 20% increase in the mean NADH RR of the eyes from the P23H NIR treated rats compared to P23H non-treated rats.
Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to photoreceptor cell loss in retinal degenerative disorders. The metabolic state of the retina in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was investigated using a cryo-fluorescence imaging technique. The mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels using optical techniques. The cryo-fluorescence redox imaging technique provides a quantitative assessment of the metabolism. More specifically, the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores (NADH/FAD), the NADH redox ratio (RR), is a marker of the metabolic state of the tissue. The NADH RR and retinal function were examined in an established rodent model of RP, the P23H rat compared to that of nondystrophic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The NADH RR mean values were 1.11±0.03 in the SD normal and 0.841±0.01 in the P23H retina, indicating increased OS in the P23H retina. Electroretinographic data revealed a significant reduction in photoreceptor function in P23H animals compared to SD nozrmal rats. Thus, cryo-fluorescence redox imaging was used as a quantitative marker of OS in eyes from transgenic rats and demonstrated that alterations in the oxidative state of eyes occur during the early stages of RP.