In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method for the low-loss coupling between solid-core multi-mode fibers (MMFs) and anti-resonant hollow-core fibers (AR-HCFs). The core/cladding diameter of the MMF is 50/125μm and the mode field diameter of the AR-HCFs are 33.3μm and 71.2μm of the ice-cream type AR-HCFs and the non-node type ARHCFs, respectively. In order to match the mode field diameters of these two specific AR-HCFs, the mode field diameter of the MMFs is increased or decreased by up-tapering or down-tapering the MMFs. Then, according to the principle of coupled fiber mode matching, the optimal diameter of tapered fiber for low-loss coupling is calculated. Based on beam propagation method, the calculated coupling losses without tapering process are 0.31dB and 0.89dB, respectively for a MMF-HCF-MMF structure of the ice-cream type AR-HCFs and the non-node type AR-HCFs. These values can be reduced to 0.096dB and 0.047dB when the outer diameters of the MMF are down-tapered to 116μm and up-tapered to 269μm, respectively. What’s more, these results can also be verified by existing experiments.
Up to now, near almost optical fiber gas lasers employ/adopt the scheme of free-space coupling, which increases the difficulty to adjust the optical path, and has poor stability. All-fiber structure fiber-gas lasers are important development directions in the future. We established the numerical model of SMF-28 type tapered single-mode fiber and non-node hollow-core fiber. When the SMF-28 type single-mode fiber has a waist diameter of 40μm when the light source is LP01 fundamental mode with 1550nm wavelength, the mode field diameter is the largest. Meanwhile, we simulated that the equivalent mode field diameter of non-node anti-resonant hollow-core fiber is about 75μm at the same 1550nm wavelength light source. Then, we use different waist diameters of SMF-28 type tapered fibers injected to the non-node anti-resonant hollow-core fiber in simulation and experiments. In the scheme of the single-ended low-loss coupling, the simulation results indicate that the best waist diameter of tapered fiber is 40μm, and the calculated maximum coupling efficiency is 83.55%. Meanwhile, the experimental result of maximum coupling efficiency is 80.74% when the best waist diameter of tapered fiber is also 40μm. As for the double-ended low-loss coupling, the calculated maximum coupling efficiency is near 83.38%.