Numerical tools have been widely used in the simulations of the exposure, the post-exposure bake, and
the development processes in lithography of thick photoresist. Three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata
(CA) model has also been successfully introduced for resist etching process simulation in recent years. In
this paper, we report a 3D CA model to simulate the formation process of the surface profile of out-of-plane
microlens fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) lithography of thick SU-8 resist. The simulation results
were compared with experimental results. The comparison shows that the 3D CA model can be used to
simulate the complicated surface formation process of the microlenses during the development process.
In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of a pre-aligned free-space optical interconnection
(FSOI) device. A simple FSOI prototype device is designed based on Gaussian beam propagation
calculation. All optical components of a FSOI device were designed in a single one mask, and the
alignment between the optical components was achieved in the mask design stage. All optical components
including microlens array and micro mirrors were positioned in an out-of-plane fashion. The fabrication
was based on a tilted Ultraviolet (UV) lithography of the SU-8 mold and fast replication using a UV
curable polymer. This method allows the production of integrated optical systems similar to conventional
optical benches in microscale and eliminates the need for tedious high-precision assembly.