The strain errors in stereo-digital image correlation (DIC) due to camera calibration were investigated using precisely controlled numerical experiments and real experiments. Three-dimensional rigid body motion tests were conducted to examine the effects of camera calibration on the measured results. For a fully accurate calibration, rigid body motion causes negligible strain errors. However, for inaccurately calibrated camera parameters and a short working distance, rigid body motion will lead to more than 50-μϵ strain errors, which significantly affects the measurement. In practical measurements, it is impossible to obtain a fully accurate calibration; therefore, considerable attention should be focused on attempting to avoid these types of errors, especially for high-accuracy strain measurements. It is necessary to avoid large rigid body motions in both two-dimensional DIC and stereo-DIC.
Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery.