The chiroptical effect is a property that describes distinct response of matter to light with opposite handedness, which is extensively utilized in stereochemistry, analytical chemistry, metamaterials, and spin photonics. Conventionally, metallic nanostructures have been harnessed to generate a strong chiroptical effect with the assistance of surface plasmon resonance, but they usually suffer from low energy efficiency and large photothermal heat generation due to the high ohmic loss of metallic materials, which severely restricts their practical applications. Here we present a dielectric spiral nanoflower with a giant chiroptical effect produced by magnetic resonance. We theoretically predicted the giant chiroptical effect of the spiral nanoflower by numerical simulations and analyzed its underlying physics by combination of a multipole expansion method. Based on the theoretical design, we experimentally fabricated the spiral nanoflower and demonstrated its strong chiroptical effect by characterizing its circular intensity difference (CID). The largest-to-date CID of 35% is demonstrated. The magnetic quadrupole interference within the spiral nanoflower was also clarified by experimentally tailoring its magnetic quadrupole interference. Our work is expected to overcome the limitation of conventional metallic platforms and pave the way toward the development of various highly efficient and thermostable chiroptical devices and applications.
Mid-infrared (MIR) resonators with high quality (Q) factors play crucial roles in a variety of applications in nonlinear optics, lasing, biochemical sensing, and spectroscopy by virtue of their features of long photon lifetime as well as strong field confinement and enhancement. Previously, such devices have been mainly studied on silicon integration platforms while the development of high-Q germanium resonators is still in its infancy due to quality limitations of current germanium integration platforms. Compared with silicon, germanium possesses a number of advantages for MIR applications, such as a wider transparency window (2 - 15 µm), a higher refractive index (~4), and a higher third-order nonlinear susceptibility. Here we present our experimental demonstration of two types of MIR high-Q germanium resonators, namely, a microring resonator and a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity. A maximum Q factor of ~57,000 is experimentally realized, which is the highest to date on germanium platforms. Moreover, we demonstrate a monolithic integration of the high-Q germanium resonators with suspended-membrane waveguides and focusing subwavelength grating couplers. Our resonators pave a new avenue for the study of on-chip light-germanium interactions and development of on-chip MIR applications in sensing and spectroscopy.
We review our recent work on waveguide grating couplers, including an apodized grating coupler with engineered
coupling strength to achieve Gaussian-like output profile, which greatly improves the fiber-chip coupling efficiency. We
will also discuss a new class of grating couplers involving the use of sub-wavelength nanostructures to engineer the
optical properties. Effective medium theory can be used in the design of sub-wavelength structures, which, when
properly engineered, can offer broadband coupling and polarization independence. Other applications of waveguide
gratings, for example bi-wavelength two dimensional gratings coupler for (de-)multiplexing two different wavelengths,
fiber-waveguide hybrid lasers and mid-infrared grating couplers on silicon-on-sapphire wafer will also be briefly