Although GaN is widely applied in UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) applications, its intrinsic properties may limits its potential in the development of large scale consumer products. ZnO, on the other hand, is a known potent candidate for UV-LEDs and LDs. However, it is very difficult to fabricate <i>p</i>-type ZnO because of a strong self-compensation effect of intrinsic defects. In this study, we shall discuss the growth conditions that favor <i>p</i>-type ZnO based on first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Selection of doping source and the corresponding thin film fabrication techniques and experimental results will
be discussed also.