GaN-based high-power laser diodes (LDs) have attracted tremendous interests in next-generation lighting applications, such as laser display, car laser light. However, high injection current usually brings inevitable drawbacks, including the well-known efficiency droop, Auger recombination and self-heating which obstruct further improvements of GaN-based optoelectrical devices. In this paper, influence of hole overflow at high injection current in an asymmetric GaN-based highpower blue LD has been comprehensively investigated and successfully suppressed by employing a new sandwiched GaN/AlGaN/GaN lower quantum barrier (GAG-LQB). Systematical simulations and measurements of structural and optical properties are carried out. As a result, the V-shaped defects induced by thick n-InGaN waveguide layer are apparently eliminated, which provides a more growth-friendly platform for deposition of the rest epitaxial layers and thus a better crystalline quality is obtained. On the other hand, the modified LD exhibits better photo-electrical properties with slope efficiency (SE) increasing from 0.98 to 1.24 and wall-plug efficiency (WPE) increasing from 18.7% to 20.5% at a high current of 1.5 A and no obvious efficiency droop is observed at a current as high as 2 A compared with the conventional one, because the middle-inserted AlGaN layer could form an extra barrier on the valence band to weaken the hole overflow and enhance the radiative recombination. Furthermore, the in-plane compressive strain induced by InGaN quantum wells (QWs) is also partially compensated by the tensile strain induced by the AlGaN layer. Therefore, the piezoelectric fieldinduced polarization is effectively alleviated and the wavelength blueshift is reduced from 7 nm to 1.6 nm.
Reliability and characterization of 850 nm 50 Gbit/s PAM-4 vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are presented. These VCSELs have demonstrated a threshold current of 0.8 mA and a slope efficiency of 0.95 W/A. The maximum optical output power of 9 mW is achieved at a thermal rollover current of 13.5 mA. The optical power is up to 5 mW and the -3dB bandwidth is in excess of 17 GHz at 25°C and 6 mA bias. The current density and power dissipation density are low to 15 kA/cm<sup>2</sup> and 25.5 kJ/cm<sup>2</sup> , respectively. The standard deviations of photoluminescence peak wavelength and Fabry-Perot cavity wavelength of epitaxial wafer are 0.75 nm and 2.2 nm, respectively. After 1500 h of the reliability study no degradation or failures of the 22 VCSELs are observed at 80°C in a heating chamber at a bias of 6 mA. Considering high optical absorption of DX center, the impurity doping concentration of 3 pairs of N-DBRs that were adjacent to active region are optimized. The additional SiO<sub>2</sub> passivation layer not only can provide moisture resistance but also provide a photon lifetime tuning. The output power increases by optimizing thickness of SiO<sub>2</sub> layer reducing power dissipation density. Single thin oxide aperture is employed by slowing down the oxidizing rate and improving temperature during a VCSEL oxidation process to thereby reduce stress concentration of an oxidation. Single thin oxide aperture may limit the -3dB bandwidth, but the modulation characteristics can be improved by adopting advanced modulation techniques such as 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4).