Laser measurement technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog, surveillance to space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. Based on the first successful laser ranging measurement to space debris in country, by applying one new set of high power 532nm wavelength laser system with 200Hz repetition rate, and adopting low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter, SHAO have achieved hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in 2014, and the measured objects with distance between 500km and 2200km, Radar Cross Section (RCS) of >10m2 to <0.5m2 at the precision of <1m RMS for small RCS targets ,and the success rate of measured passes of up to 80%. The results show that laser ranging technology in China can routinely measure space debris and provide enough measurement data with high accuracy to space debris applications and researches such as surveillance activities in the future.
SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) is the common satellite observation technology with the highest single shot precision. The 532nm wavelength laser signal derived from 1064nm wavelength laser system is generally adopted to laser measurement to satellites. The 1064nm wavelength laser signal has better performances than 532nm ones in atmospheric attenuation, photon number, laser power, development and price, and so on, which is beneficial to enhance the detection ability of measuring system, and carry out the goal of weak signal detection. In this paper, the relevant techniques are presented in building up SLR system with 1064nm wavelength, and the corresponding solutions are put forward. With these techniques, the 1064nm wavelength high precise SLR measurement was successfully carried out by using si-detector for the first time in Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) and the experimental foundations have been laid for the further development and applications in the field of far distance and weak signal space targets observation.