During the iron-making process in blast furnace, the Si content in liquid pig iron was usually used to evaluate the quality of liquid iron and thermal state of blast furnace. None effective method was found for rapid detecting the Si concentration of liquid iron. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a kind of atomic emission spectrometry technology based on laser ablation. Its obvious advantage is realizing rapid, in-situ, online analysis of element concentration in open air without sample pretreatment. The characteristics of Si in liquid iron were analyzed from the aspect of thermodynamic theory and metallurgical technology. The relationship between Si and C, Mn, S, P or other alloy elements were revealed based on thermodynamic calculation. Subsequently, LIBS was applied on rapid detection of Si of pig iron in this work. During LIBS detection process, several groups of standard pig iron samples were employed in this work to calibrate the Si content in pig iron. The calibration methods including linear, quadratic and cubic internal standard calibration, multivariate linear calibration and partial least squares (PLS) were compared with each other. It revealed that the PLS improved by normalization was the best calibration method for Si detection by LIBS.