Riderless bicycles, which belong to the class of narrow autonomous vehicles, offer numerous potentials to improve living conditions in the smart cities of the future. Various obstacles exist in achieving full autonomy for this class of autonomous vehicles. One of these significant challenges lie within the synthesis of automatic control algorithms that provide self-balancing and maneuvering capabilities for this class of autonomous vehicles. Indeed, the nonlinear, underactuated, and non-minimum phase dynamics of riderless bicycles offer rich challenges for automatic control of these autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we report on implementing linear parameter varying (LPV)-based controllers for balancing our constructed autonomous bicycle, which is equipped with linear electric actuators for automatic steering, in the upright position. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Autonomous bicycles offer numerous potentials for smart city applications thanks in part to their light weight, safe autonomy, being optionally manned, and last-mile delivery. This paper describes the design of a self-stabilizing autonomous bicycle with electric linear actuators. The high-speed linear actuator is mounted between the seat and the handlebar of the autonomous bicycle, which provides the bicycle with high peak power and energy efficiency. Physical tests are carried out to verify automatic steering and speed regulation capabilities of the autonomous bicycle.