Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.
We present the first prospective test of Raman spectroscopy in diagnosing normal, benign, and malignant human breast tissues. Prospective testing of spectral diagnostic algorithms allows clinicians to accurately assess the diagnostic information contained in, and any bias of, the spectroscopic measurement. In previous work, we developed an accurate, internally validated algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis based on analysis of Raman spectra acquired from fresh-frozen in vitro tissue samples. We currently evaluate the performance of this algorithm prospectively on a large ex vivo clinical data set that closely mimics the in vivo environment. Spectroscopic data were collected from freshly excised surgical specimens, and 129 tissue sites from 21 patients were examined. Prospective application of the algorithm to the clinical data set resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 36%, and a negative predictive value of 99% for distinguishing cancerous from normal and benign tissues. The performance of the algorithm in different patient populations is discussed. Sources of bias in the in vitro calibration and ex vivo prospective data sets, including disease prevalence and disease spectrum, are examined and analytical methods for comparison provided.
Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal carcinoma in terms of physically meaningful parameters. We acquire 202 spectra from 104 sites in freshly excised breast biopsies from 17 patients within 30 min of surgical excision. The broadband diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra are collected via a portable clinical spectrometer and specially designed optical fiber probe. The diffuse reflectance spectra are fit using modified diffusion theory to extract absorption and scattering tissue parameters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra are extracted from the combined fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra and analyzed using multivariate curve resolution. Spectroscopy results are compared to pathology diagnoses, and diagnostic algorithms are developed based on parameters obtained via logistic regression with cross-validation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall diagnostic accuracy (total efficiency) of the algorithm are 100, 96, 69, 100, and 91%, respectively. All invasive breast cancer specimens are correctly diagnosed. The combination of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy yields promising results for discrimination of breast cancer from benign breast lesions and warrants a prospective clinical study.