A 1×4 optical splitter based on annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides is designed and fabricated.
The beam propagation method and refractive index profile of APE waveguide are analyzed numerically. The symmetry
of the optical splitter is reformed and optimized by adding straight waveguide in the cascaded Y-branch structure. The
relationship between the length of the straight waveguide and the beam-slipper coefficient is obtained. The function of
the 1×4 optical splitter is simulated by the commercial software BeamProp (RSoft). And the result indicates that the
output uniformity of the optical splitter is improved when the length of the straight waveguide is 1935μm. Furthermore,
the polarization-maintaining is gained in the 1×4 optical splitter since only the TE mode can propagate in the APE
waveguide in X-cut LiNbO<sub>3</sub> crystal. Finally, the optical splitter is fabricated and tested experimentally and the results
show good agreement with the simulation.
A laser steering system based on the Ti-diffusion lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) waveguides is presented. A phase shifter based on the LiNbO 3 waveguide is designed. This waveguide can provide a continuous phase shift for laser-phased-array (LPA) by changing the voltage loaded on it. The theory of irregular LPA based on the Ti-diffusion LiNbO 3 waveguide phase shifter is studied numerically and experimentally. Beam steering with an angle of 1.37 deg is gained by a 1×3 array setup that agrees well with the theory.