Artificial neural network and simulated annealing are applied to obtain optimized design parameters of skewed omega-shaped metamaterial unit cells for providing left-handed material (LHM) with a negative refractive index. The implemented numerical and experimental methods provide evidence for the validity and practicality of the technique. Simulation, with optimized parameters, using CST Microwave Studio, shows that skewed LHMs are low-loss materials.
In this paper Sierpinski E-Carpet antenna based on the implementation of fractal technique is proposed for multiband applications in 2-10 GHz band. There appeared 5 resonant frequencies at 2.35 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5.503 GHz, 7.248GHz, and 8.79GHz for 2nd iteration. From the return loss plot it is seen that antenna achieved the IEEE Bluetooth/WLAN (2.4-2.484 GHz), WiMAX (3.4-3.69 GHz) and WIFI (5.1-5.825 GHz) frequency band with -10dB return loss. Also nearly omni-directional radiation pattern is observed. A prototype of the design is successfully implemented with close agreement between measurement and simulation result.