<p>Orbital angular momentum (OAM), one of the most recently discovered degrees of freedom of light beam field has fundamentally revolutionized optical physics and its technological capabilities. Optical beams with OAM have enabled a large variety of applications, including super-resolution imaging, optical trapping, classical and quantum optical communication, and quantum computing, to mention a few. To enable these and several other emerging applications, optical beams with OAM have been generated using a variety of methods and technologies, such as a simple astigmatic lens pair, one-/two-dimensional holographic optical elements, three-dimensional spiral phase plates, optical fibers, and recent entrants such as metasurfaces. All these techniques achieve spatial light modulation and can be implemented with either passive elements or active devices, such as liquid crystal on silicon and digital micromirror devices. Many of these devices and technologies are not only used for the generation of amplitude phase-polarization structured light beams but are also capable of analyzing them. We have attempted to encompass a wide variety of such technologies as well as a few emerging methodologies, broadly categorized into generation and detection protocols. We address the needs of scientists and engineers who desire to generate/detect OAM modes and are looking for the technique (active or passive) best suited for their application.</p>
We report design, fabrication and characterization of molded chalcogenide microlens array for Infrared sensing applications. A master of desired microlens array with high sag value is prepared using ultraviolet lithography and thermal reflow method on a positive photoresist (ma–P1275HV). The negative replica of the master is created using polydimethylsiloxane which serves as a mold for micro-molding. Further, chalcogenide solution is prepared in ethanolamine solvent and spin coated on a substrate to get a uniform film; these films are characterized and are found to have the same optical properties as the parent bulk chalcogenide glass. Finally, the microlens array is fabricated by the micro-molding of chalcogenide film. Fabricated chalcogenide microlenses are characterized for geometrical parameters, which are used to estimate the optical parameters.