Delay line anode detector has high spatial resolution and high count rate. It has been an important technical means for
single photon imaging from near earth space to deep space. A two dimensional delay line anode is designed using
multilayer circuit board technology. A complete set of PCB delay line anode single photon detection system is established.
The spatial resolution of the detector is theoretically analyzed. Moreover, the signal transmission characteristic of PCB
delay line and the dark count rate of the detector are tested. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the
detector spatial resolution is about 100um and the overall dark count rate is 4counts/cm<sup>2</sup> at 2.3KV.
The structural models of micro-channel plate (MCP) and fluorescent screen of the framing camera were established. By
combining the finite element integration and Monte Carlo method, software Simion and Lorenz were respectively used to
simulate the effects of different voltages loaded on the fluorescent screen, different closed distance between fluorescent
screen and MCP, and electrode immersion depth at MCP output on the spatial resolution, in order to obtain an
axisymmetric distribution curve. Results showed that the closed distance between MCP and fluorescent screen had the
largest impact on the framing camera’s spatial resolution. In addition, higher fluorescent screen voltage did not
necessarily result in better spatial resolution, as it was influenced by the light-emitting mechanism of the fluorescent
screen. At the framing camera’s current closed distance of 0.8mm, a fluorescent screen voltage of 5000V could achieve
the best spatial resolution.
A novel moving objects dimension measurement system based on the linear array CCD is designed. The light source is a pulsed laser with pulse width 200ns. Single point of light passes through lens converted to parallel light which will illuminate to the CCD through the moving object to be tested. CCD pixels which are blocked by the object while light is on are low, and the remaining pixels are high conversely. The distance of the tested objects while light is on can be ignored since the light pulse width is much smaller than the integration time of CCD (generally). The size of the tested object can be achieved by the number of dark pixels of CCD while light is on. This paper introduces the principle and composition of the dimension measurement system. The results show that this system can measure the size of moving objects and measuring accuracy is better than 50 microns. Accuracy and stability of the system can achieve actual production requirements when the object’s moving speed is smaller than 50mm/s. Optimizing the parallelism of the parallel light, the measurement accuracy can be further improved.
A new method to get a X-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution was proposed based on time amplification. Its principle comes from that we use high voltage electrical pulse to get speed dispersion of the photoelectrons pulse first, and then the photoelectrons pulse will be stretched in axial direction by drift area, at the end the photoelectrons pulse after stretched will be framing imaged by a traditional MCP（microchannel plate）gated framing camera. A model of the camera was built according to this method. Time amplification of the system is about 30, and image magnification of the system is about 0.4. Parameters for designing the camera system were presented after theoretical deriving and model simulation. At last, theoretical time resolution and spatial resolution of the camera were given.
Based on the principle of capacitor pre-charging, an analog pulse stretch circuit is designed for detecting peak power of narrow laser impulse. Experimental test were carried out. And it could achieve regulation accuracy of 5ps, jitter<600ps. Due to the need of different delay ranges during the practical applications, the analog pulse stretch circuit is optimized. It doesn’t only meet the different adjustment ranges, but also maintains high regulation accuracy.
We present evidence that transmission loss in gated x-ray framing cameras can affect relative gains. Transmission loss is caused by a variety of factors including: incident voltage waveform, matched load, width of Au electrode gap, and so on. The transition electrode in MCP (Micro-channel Plate) is continuous gradual change line, and it has good capability of compensation. When continuous gradual change micro-strip line is designed, dielectric loss tangent is one of transmission loss factors too. The model structure is designed based on the analysis of modeling and simulation techniques and experiment data as well as forecast target. The transmission loss is reduced from 50% to 25%, the transmission efficiency is greatly improved.
Framing camera based on gated Micro-channel plate (MCP) was widely used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and Z-pinch because of its ultrafast time-resolve. Electrons with imaging information are multiplied when the HV pulse propagating through the MCP strip line. Obviously, the HV pulse was used as a shutter here, then the exposure time of the imagine will be determined by the width of the pulse. Theoretical analysis indicates that thegating pulse(200ps) has a bandwidth of 5GHz, thus, impedance match in the propagating path of the pulse will be very important. Impedance mismatch will cause reflecting of the pulse and decrease the transmission efficiency. This will cause un-uniformity of the dynamic gain of the MCP, and finally resulting in imagedistortion. A new designed impedance matching circuit is developed in this paper. Simulated results showedthatthe newdesignedimpedance matching circuit couldreduce the reflection of thegating pulse significantly, and dynamicgain uniformity of the MCP was increased simultaneously
Imaging systems with high temporal resolution are needed to study rapid physical phenomena ranging from shock waves, including extracorporeal shock waves used for surgery, to diagnostics of laser fusion and fuel injection in internal combustion engines. However, conventional streak cameras use a vacuum tube making thus fragile, cumbersome and expensive. Here we report an CMOS streak camera project consists in reproducing completely this streak camera functionality with a single CMOS chip. By changing the mode of charge transfer of CMOS image sensor, fast photoelectric diagnostics of single point with linear CMOS and high-speed line scanning with array CMOS sensor can be achieved respectively. A fast photoelectric diagnostics system has been designed and fabricated to investigate the feasibility of this method. Finally, the dynamic operation of the sensors is exposed. Measurements show a sample time of 500 ps and a time resolution better than 2 ns.
A novel method to realize fast photoelectric diagnostics using ordinary CCD is presented. By changing the mode of charge
transfer of CCD, fast photoelectric diagnostics of single point with linear CCD and high-speed line scanning with array CCD can
be achieved respectively. A fast photoelectric diagnostics system of single point based on linear CCD has been designed and
fabricated to investigate the feasibility of this method. A pulsed blue light emitting diode (LED) has been used to measure the
system. As a proof of concept, the rate of photoelectric diagnostics of single point reachs up to 20 MHz. The results demonstrated
that the method of fast photoelectric diagnostics based on ordinary CCD is feasible.
Here we report an ultrafast x-ray imaging sensor based on optical measurement of the effects of x-ray absorption and
electron hole pair creation in a direct band-gap semiconductor. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to
provide a new approach for x-ray detectors and x-ray imaging systems with picosecond temporal resolution at x-ray
energies ~10 keV. The x-ray absorption in GaAs produces a transient, non-equilibrium, electron-hole pair distribution
which is then sensed by the phase modulation of the optical probe beam. The basic physics of the detector,
implementation considerations, and preliminary experimental data are presented and discussed. Through further
development, this x-ray imaging sensor could provide insight into previously unmeasurable phenomena in many fields.