Leaf area index, which is the most basic biophysical parameter in the description of vegetation canopy structure, has
become an important input parameter in land surface process. Along with the intensive study of LAI retrieval in remote
sensing, the scale effect problem related to LAI has attracted more and more attention and has become a focus in
quantitative study of remote sensing. Based on the mechanism analysis of scaling effects, the scale effect of LAI is
discussed. Then, the relevant scaling model is proposed under the hypothesis of a normal distribution of surface
observations. The result shows that the relative error for LAI retrieval is less than 1%. So, it validates the reliability of
this model in one aspect.
Urban heat island (UHI) is an important feature of urban thermal environment. In order to detect the seasonal
characteristics of urban heat island in Beijing city, Landsat 5 TM images acquired on July 25th 2005, November 14th
2005, and April 7th 2006 respectively were used to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) of Beijing city based on the
generalized single channel algorithm which is a new algorithm applicable to retrieve land surface temperature from only
one thermal infrared channel. Then seasonal urban thermal environmental characteristics were analyzed. The result
shows that in summer the urban heat island phenomenon is evident, and in both winter and spring, land surface
temperature within the second ring road is obviously higher than that between the second and the fourth ring roads
showing the ring-shaped UHI features, which is in accordance with the ring-road system of Beijing city. But areas
outside the fourth ring road show lighter tone (meaning higher temperature) in the land surface temperature distribution
map of winter and spring and reasons for this abnormity were given.
Land use/cover change (LUCC) is a key aspect of global environment change and in a sense indicates the influence of human activities on natural environment. Regional case study is the core of LUCC research. The 28th Olympic Games will be hold in Beijing. The Olympic Green locates in northern Beijing, where there are villages, residential houses, arable land and commercial building. In order to detect the changes of land use in the past several years and monitor the change of the Olympic Green and the construction implementation in the past four years, one Quickbird image of 2002 and three aerial true color images of 2003, 2004 and 2005 in May or July are used to monitor the change and the location of construction, green land, water body after standardized radiometric normalization correction and geometrical correction. The land use changes during the past four years were statistically analyzed by the interpretation of the images that show clearly the location of the housebreaking area and the progress of the Olympic main venue construction area.
This paper focuses on remote sensing information extraction in geological environment survey and disaster evaluation. DMC satellite multispectral data of tsunami area in Sumatran island and Namucuo area in Tibet is selected as the data source. After data processing and synthesis analysis such as fine geometric correction, image radiation analysis, information enhancement, information extraction, geological interpretation etc., and with the support of the known remote sensing and geological data, the information of Quaternary geology, environment, disaster, desertification in Namucuo Lake and surrounding area is extracted. With regard to tsunami area in Sumatran island, obvious linear and ringed textures in the image are extracted, mapped and analyzed from chromatic aberration of vegetation and texture information, and its geological meaning is interpreted. Northwest fault is the main fault, the smaller one is the northeast fault which is perpendicular to the main fault. Based on that, we have initially analyzed the fracture distribution characters that probably control or induce geologic disasters of the region, and we have also predicted three regions where geological disasters such as debris flow, landslip, landslide etc easily take place and two probable regions where volcanic activities happen. Using DMC satellite data of Namucuo Lake and its surrounding area in Tibet we can recognize lots of information such as lake-face stratum of the Quaternary, bare bedrock, linear feature, two-level and three-level water system, glacier distribution. Through the comparison and analysis of two-period image, we have found four debris flow areas caused by snow melting in the surrounding region of Bingna, Bencuoduo, and Qinglongxiang. In the aspect of land desertification, through image classification, we can extract remote sensing information such as bare ground with grit, meadow, wetland, desertification land (severe, moderate and slight) and alkaline land (moderate and slight) etc. in Namucuo Lake region and its surrounding region. Geological disaster evaluation using DMC satellite data indicates that it not only have huge application potential for disaster monitoring, but also have important application value for geologic environment monitoring.
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