A novel, simple fiber-optic acoustic sensor consisting of a self-mixing effect based laser source and a ring-type interferometer is presented. With weak external optical feedbacks, the acoustic wave signals can be detected by measuring the changes of oscillating frequency of the laser diode, induced by the disturbances of sensing fiber, with the ring-type interferometer. The operation principles of the sensor system are explored in-depth and the experimental researches are carried out. The acoustic wave signals produced by various actions, such as by pencil broken, mental pin free falling and PZT are detected for evaluating the sensing performances of the experimental system. The investigation items include the sensitivity as well as frequency responses of the sensor system. An experiment for the detection of corona discharges is carried out, which occur in a high-voltage environment between two parallel copper electrodes, under different humidity levels. The satisfied experimental results are obtained. These experimental results well prove that our proposed sensing system has very high sensitivity and excellent high frequency responses characteristics in the detections of weak, high-frequency acoustic wave signals.