It would be very challenging for a designer to select desirable structure parameters for a laser triangulation probe, the parameters which have an appreciable or noticeable impact on probe’s measuring range, resolution and accuracy. The challenge is aggravated by the trade-offs between the measuring range and resolution since there is interdependency and a delicate balance among them. Therefore, this paper focuses on building the relationship between the measuring range and resolution, and tries to optimize the structure parameters to improve measuring accuracy within a certain measuring range. In order to verify the validity and feasibility of this method, single-triangulation probe simulation experiments are also performed in 3dsmax platform. In addition, a double-triangulation probe simulation system is proposed and the experimental results confirm that the slope error can be compensated effectively. The conclusions presented in this paper provide useful guidance for designing a high-precision triangulation probe.