We present a type of diffractive lenses “Zernike apodized photon sieves” (ZAPS), which structure is based on the combination of two concepts: apodized photon sieves and Zernike phase-contrast. In combination with the synchrotron light sources, the ZAPS can be used as an objective for high-resolution X-ray phase-contrast microscopy in physical and life sciences. The ZAPS is a single optic that integrates the appropriate ±π/2 radians phase shift through selective zone placement shifts in an apodized photon sieve. The focusing properties of the ZAPS can be easily controlled by apodizing its pupil function. An apodized photon sieve with Gaussian pupil was fabricated by lithographic technique and showed that the side-lobes have been significantly suppressed at the expense of slightly widening the width of the main lobe.
The goal of deconvolution microscopy for phase-contrast imaging is to reassign the optical blur to its original position
and to reduce statistical noise, thus visualizing the cellular structures of living cells in three dimensions and at
subresolution scale. The major features of this technology for a phase-contrast microscopy are discussed through a series of theoretical analyses. A few of possible sources of aberrations and image degradation processes are presented. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that deconvolution microscopy can enhance resolution and contrast by either subtracting or reassigning out-of-focus blur.
A fiber-optic interferometer to measure differences in temperature between two single-mode fiber arms is described.
Temperature changes are observed as a motion of an optical interference fringe pattern. Values are calculated for the
temperature dependence of the fringe motion. Temperature measurements are made with the interferometer, and the
experimental results for sensitivity are in good agreement with the theoretical values.