With the split-step-Fourier-transform method for solving the nonlinear paraxial wave equation, the intensity distribution of the light field when the pits diameter or depth change is obtained by using numerical simulation, include the intensity distribution inside optical element, the beam near-field, the different distances behind the element and the beam far-field. Results show that with the increase of pits diameter or depth, the light field peak intensity and the contrast inside of element corresponding enhancement. The contrast of the intensity distribution of the rear surface of the element will increase slightly. The peak intensity produced by a specific location element downstream of thermal effect will continue to increase, the damage probability in optics placed here is greatly increased. For the intensity distribution of the far-field, increase the pitting diameter or depth will cause the focal spot intensity distribution changes, and the energy of the spectrum center region increase constantly. This work provide a basis for quantitative design and inspection for pitting defects, which provides a reference for the design of optical path arrangement.
Z-scan technology is a popular experimental technique for determining the nonlinear refractive index of the material. However, it encounters a great difficulty in measuring the weak nonlinear material like fused silica which is about two orders of magnitude below the nonlinear refractive index of most of the materials studied with the nanosecond and picosecond Z-scan methods. In this case, the change of refractive index introduced by accumulation of thermal effects cannot be neglected. In order to have a reliable measurement of the nonlinear refractive index, a metrology bench based on the femtosecond Z-scan technology is developed. The intensity modulation component and the differential measurement system are applied to guarantee the accuracy of the measuring system. Based on the femtosecond Z-scan theory, the femtosecond laser Z-scan technique is performed on fused silica, and the nonlinear refractive index of Fused silica is determined to be 9.2039×10<sup>-14</sup>esu for 800nm, 37fs pulse duration at I0=50GW/cm<sup>2</sup> with a good repeatability of 6.7%.
Parallelism is an important parameter of plane glass in high power solid-stat lasers. In this paper, a method for parallelism measurement is proposed. This method is based on total least squares(TLS) to fit wavefront into plane, the parallelism can be calculated by the included angle between planes. Furthermore, with tri-dimensional ray-tracing method, larger aperture plane glass can be measured with smaller interferometer at oblique incidence. A comparison test about parallelism measured at 0° and oblique incidence is set up to verify the accuracy of this method.
The focal length is one of the important parameters in the optical element, and the high precision measurement of the focal length has become a key problem in the processing and use of the optical element. The laser differential confocal length measurement system is introduced, and the uncertainty of the two sets of focal length measurement is evaluated. The relative error (K = 2) is better than 4.77×10<sup>-5</sup>, and the relative error is 0.00025%.
Interferometry is a high-precision method to test the transmitted wavefront error of lens. However, the radiuses of curvature of some part of lens are too small to produce interference with other optical surface. The resulting interference ring is parasitic in the measured wavefront. The influence of the phase and position of parasitic interference ring on the measured wavefront are analyzed in this paper. Analysis results shows that the existence of parasitic interference ring seriously affects the three-dimensional shape of the measured wavefront. To reduce its influence, a new wavelet filtering method is demonstrated and discussed. By subtract the wavelet decomposition vector of quadratic sum of XY direction gradient from the wavelet coefficients of the measured wavefront, the wavelet reconstruction decomposition vector of the real wavefront are obtained. The whole process is described in detail, and the simulation experiments are done. Compared with the median filtering and mean filtering, the result of the wavelet filtering based on the gradient wavefont is closer to the truth wavefront. This method effectively improves the wavefront filtering effect when the parasitic interference ring exists, and advantageous to guide higher quality lens processing.
For multilayer films system, in order to obtain the thickness and surface profile in each layer of thin film, a method to measure the 3D morphology of a multilayer films system based on scanning white light interferometer has been proposed in this article. At first, the mathematical relationship between reflection phase and thickness of each film layer has been obtained by using the electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Then, a nonlinear least square algorithm has been used to fit the reflection phase which had been found through a scanning white light interferometer, in this way the linear and nonlinear terms of the reflection phase have been separated, which made it possible to measure top-layer surface profile and thickness of each thin film layer respectively and avoided the interference with each other, because the linear term is related to the top layer’s surface profile but the nonlinear term is correlated to the thickness of each film layer in multilayer thin films system. Thus, the three-dimensional morphology of multilayer thin films system could be reconstructed. Experimental results showed this method was effective in the three-dimensional morphology measurement for multilayer thin films. And the measurement could be completed just using the existing commercial scanning white light interferometer, as a consequence the measurement cost is low, and the operation will be quite simple.
In many long focal distance lens focal length detection method, laser confocal combined focal length measurement with
ultra high focusing accuracy, more and more attention and application. The accurate measurement of the distance
between the lens focus and the focus in the measurement process is the key to improve the accuracy of the whole
measurement. By repeating the measurement of focal distance under different environmental conditions, the results of
repeated measurements of influenced by the environmental conditions. The results show that air disturbance is the
measurement repeatability factors having the greatest impact, for better use of the equipment and in the equipment
development research foundation laid the foundation.
A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.
Reflection Z-scan technique allows the measurements of optical nonlinearities of highly absorbing media and surface of transparent media, when transmission Z-scan can not be used. However, Reflection Z-scan needs multiple measurements under strong laser pulse excitation in the scanning process. This can induce damage in the sample in some cases. In this paper, a Non-scanning Reflection Technique (NRT) for measurement of optical nonlinearities is presented to overcome this drawback. Both the nonlinear refraction index and nonlinear absorption coefficient can be determined by measuring the reflection in combination of variable attenuator and an aperture. Based on the Fresnel theory, a theoretical analysis of Non-scanning Reflection Technique (NRT) demonstrates the feasibility of this approach is given and a general expression for the normalized reflectance is derived. In order to illustrate our analytical results, we performed a numerical simulation of the normalized reflectance. Besides, retardance and size of the induced phase plate also make contributions to the normalized reflectance. Moreover, this technique shows a higher sensitivity property compared with traditional reflection Z-scan method.