An ABB IRB6640 industrial robot is used as a processing platform for optical polishing. The relationships of coordinate systems are defined, the algorithm of coordinate transformation, Euler angles and quaternion are provided. M-like removal function and Gaussian-like removal function are used to simulation process an off-axis aspheric surface. The surface error after polishing by M-like removal function is 1.5 to 2.5 times bigger than Gaussian-like removal function. This proves that M-like removal function also has good convergence speed. Then, the pentagram polishing head is used to polish a Φ600mm off-axis paraboloid surface. After 15 cycles, about 120 hours processing, PV converges from 5.8μm to 0.836μm, RMS converges from 1.2μm to 0.054μm, PV and RMS respectively converge 85% and 95%. The experiment shows M-like removal function has good convergence speed.
A Φ450mm primary mirror subsystem of a space-based astronomy telescope was designed with mass, optical surface distortion and reflectivity requirement. The open-back primary mirror was made of pressure-less sintering silicon carbide, light-weighted at a ratio of approximately 70%. Three side supporting invar flexure bipods were designed to minimize the assembling stress and the thermal stress. The high reflection was obtained from the optical surface cementite. The mirror weighted 7kg and the reflectivity was 97% after optical polishing. The mirror subsystem was precisely assembled under the strict technical condition. The optical test with interferometer showed that the optical surface distortion is less than 1/40λ rms, which met the critical optical requirements for the primary mirror of the space-based astronomy telescope.
To improve the reflecting properties of all CFRP mirror, a high reflecting coating must be prepared on the mirror surface. In this paper, the effect of the roughness, film material and the deposition temperature on the reflecting rate was discussed. In the experiments, it was observed that the film exhibited higher reflecting rate on the smoother surface; meanwhile, the deposition rate must be controlled below the soften point of the surface replicated resin; if not, pits will generate on the surface and reduce reflecting rate. Ag film system exhibited higher reflecting rate than Al films. Finally, a multilayer film Ag and SiO<sub>2</sub> was deposited on CFRP mirror, with a reflecting rate over 95% between 450nm and 800 nm.
The manufacturing and testing of a surface modified silicon carbide mirror with a bowl-shaped structure was introduced. The entire process flow includes pre-modification silicon carbide substrate processing, silicon carbide substrate surface modification, and silicon modified layer processing. Firstly, before the modification, the conventional processing method of silicon carbide was used, and the effect of the support form on the figure was eliminated by multiple direction rotation testing.At the same time, the self-aligned compensation cross-test was completed and the accuracy of the aspherical surface coefficient was verified. In addition, the polishing process of the silicon modified layer material was studied, and the optimum process parameters suitable for polishing the silicon modified layer material were found out. Based on the above experiments, the modified optical processing adopts a combination of two kinds of polishing technology: flexible chemical mechanical polishing (FCMP)and ion beam figuring (IBF).The surface roughness and surface finish of silicon modified layer are improved by flexible chemical mechanical polishing technology. The high figure accuracy of silicon modified layer is achieved finally by ion beam figuring technology. Finally, the final result of the mirror after IBF is:the RMS values of the figure and roughness in the Φ450 mm aperture is 0.01λ (λ=632.8 nm) and 0.52 nm. The mirror's processing results fully meet the design specifications.
Due to low density, high specific stiffness, and low thermal expansion, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is believed to be one of the potential material choices for optical mirrors. But CFRP is one of the two-phase materials that cannot be used as optical surface and must be surface modified. To develop one kind of grid-reinforced CFRP mirror, optical replication technology was used to modify and achieve high-precision surface, and theoretical deformation due to replica resin curing and deformation caused by laminates’ manufacturing errors were studied in detail. Optical replication experiment has shown that λ / 20 root mean square high-precision surface can be achieved for ϕ100-mm grid-reinforced carbon fiber mirrors.
Variable curvature mirror (VCM) can change its curvature radius dynamically and is usually used to correct the defocus and spherical aberration caused by thermal lens effect to improve the output beam quality of high power solid-state laser. Recently, the probable application of VCM in realizing non-moving element optical zoom imaging in visible band has been paid much attention. The basic requirement for VCM lies in that it should provide a large enough saggitus variation and still maintains a high enough surface figure at the same time. Therefore in this manuscript, by combing the pressurization based actuation with a variable thickness mirror design, the purpose of obtaining large saggitus variation and maintaining quite good surface figure accuracy at the same time could be achieved. A prototype zoom mirror with diameter of 120mm and central thickness of 8mm is designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results demonstrate that the zoom mirror having an initial surface figure accuracy superior to 1/80λ could provide bigger than 36um saggitus variation and after finishing the curvature variation its surface figure accuracy could still be superior to 1/40λ with the spherical aberration removed, which proves that the effectiveness of the theoretical design.
Due to low density, high stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficient, duplicate molding, etc., carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is one of the potential materials of the optical mirror. The process developed for Φ300mm high precision CFRP mirror described in this paper. A placement tool used to improve laying accuracy up to ± 0.1°.A special reinforced cell structure designed to increase rigidity and thermal stability. Optical replication process adopted for surface modification of the carbon fiber composite mirror blank. Finally, surface accuracy RMS of Φ300mm CFRP mirror is 0.22μm, surface roughness Ra is about 2nm, and the thermal stability can achieve 13nm /°C from the test result. The research content is of some reference value in the infrared as well as visible light applications.
Up to now, traditional materials, such as glass, metal and SiC ceramic, gradually begin to be unsatisfied development of
the future mirrors. Designable carbon fiber reinforced composites became optimized material for large aperture
lightweight mirrors. Carbon/carbon composites exhibit low thermal expansion and no moisture-absorption expansion
problem, therefore, they get particular attention in the space reflector field. Ni was always employed as optical layer in
the mirror, however, the coating behaved poor bond with substrate and often peeled off during optical processing. In
order to solve this problem, slight oxidation was carried on the C/C composites before Ni plated. The Ni coating
exhibited stronger coherence and better finish performance. Finally, a 100mm diameter plane mirror was successful
The advantage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is obvious as a common space material for low density, low thermal expansion coefficient and high specific stiffness characteristics, it is the ideal material choice for space optical reflector. Mirror structure with honeycomb can achieve high rates of lightweight, as well as high specific stiffness. For Φ300mm CFRP mirror, accounting of the actual process properties of CFRP, mirror panels laminated based on thermal stability design, honeycomb fabricated using one innovative inlaying-grafting design method. Finally, lightweight structure design of the CFRP primary mirror completed, the thermal stability result of the Φ300mm CFRP mirror achieved is 10nm°C.
Zoom mirror is a kind of active optical component that can change its curvature radius dynamically. Normally, zoom mirror is used to correct the defocus and spherical aberration caused by thermal lens effect to improve the beam quality of high power solid-state laser since that component was invented. Recently, the probable application of zoom mirror in realizing non-moving element optical zoom imaging in visible band has been paid much attention. With the help of optical leveraging effect, the slightly changed local optical power caused by curvature variation of zoom mirror could be amplified to generate a great alteration of system focal length without moving elements involved in, but in this application the shorter working wavelength and higher surface figure accuracy requirement make the design and fabrication of such a zoom mirror more difficult. Therefore, the key to realize non-moving element optical zoom imaging in visible band lies in zoom mirror which could provide a large enough saggitus variation while still maintaining a high enough surface figure. Although the annular force based actuation could deform a super-thin mirror having a constant thickness to generate curvature variation, it is quite difficult to maintain a high enough surface figure accuracy and this phenomenon becomes even worse when the diameter and the radius-thickness ratio become bigger. In this manuscript, by combing the pressurization based actuation with a variable thickness mirror design, the purpose of obtaining large saggitus variation and maintaining quite good surface figure accuracy at the same time could be achieved. A prototype zoom mirror with diameter of 120mm and central thickness of 8mm is designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results demonstrate that the zoom mirror having an initial surface figure accuracy superior to 1/50λ could provide at least 21um saggitus variation and after finishing the curvature variation its surface figure accuracy could still be superior to 1/20λ, which proves that the effectiveness of the theoretical design.
A three-dimensional kinematic model of spherical mirror is developed by coordinate transformation theory. Based on the
model and Preston equation, material removal rate for polishing with constant pressure can be obtained. Then the fitted
parameters are determined for special process tools (pentagon tool and Uniform Removal Tool), Conclusions beneficial
to glass polishing in practice are arrived. The simulate results can describe visually the material removal law of mirror
under so many kinematic parameters. The work discussed above is of importance to polish flat mirror, spherical mirror
and aspheric mirror with one-axis polisher.