Absolute measurement with Phase Measuring Deflectometry (PMD) is gaining importance in industry, but the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of calibration. In order to improve the accuracy of the PMD to a level where it competes with interferometry, a reference calibration process is commonly carried out to carefully calibrate the systematic errors. The systematic errors obtained by measuring a high quality reference surface can be subtracted from the measurement of a test surface to get its actual surface, however, it could introduce the surface error of reference into the measurement. To alleviate this problem, this paper introduces a technique named “rotational shear phase measuring deflectometry”, this technique have the ability of removing the rotationally asymmetric systematic errors from the test surface without using a reference surface. The validity of this technique has been demonstrated by simulation and our experimental results.
Images will be blurred by relative motion between the camera and the object of interest. In this paper, we analyzed the process of motion-blurred image, and demonstrated a restoration method based on Lucy-Richardson algorithm. The blur extent and angle can be estimated by Radon transform algorithm and auto-correlation function, respectively, and then the point spread function (PSF) of the motion-blurred image can be obtained. Thus with the help of the obtained PSF, the Lucy-Richardson restoration algorithm is used for experimental analysis on the motion-blurred images that have different blur extents, spatial resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR’s). Further, its effectiveness is also evaluated by structural similarity (SSIM). Further studies show that, at first, for the image with a spatial frequency of 0.2 per pixel, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the restored images can maintains above 0.7 when the blur extent is no bigger than 13 pixels. That means the method compensates low frequency information of the image, while attenuates high frequency information. At second, we fund that the method is more effective on condition that the product of the blur extent and spatial frequency is smaller than 3.75. Finally, the Lucy-Richardson algorithm is found insensitive to the Gaussian noise (of which the variance is not bigger than 0.1) by calculating the MTF of the restored image.