The phase diversity wave-front sensing (PDWFS) technique is a posteriori image-based wave-front sensing method which utilizes two images collected simultaneously whose pupil phase differs from each other in a known manner, typically the defocus phase diversity. Here, we present a new method of implementing phase diversity on the sparse aperture imaging system that adds an intentional piston phase to one subaperture. The objective function is firstly derived for the sparse aperture imaging system, then the genetic algorithm is used to minimize the objective function to estimate the piston errors of the subapertures. Digital simulations are conducted for varying amounts of piston phase diversity and levels of noise, the performance of sub-aperture phase diversity is evaluated by comparing with the conventional defocus phase diversity. The results show that the conventional defocus phase diversity performs better than the sub-aperture phase diversity when there is no noise, while the sub-aperture phase diversity outperforms the conventional defocus phase diversity when the noise strength increases. Sub-aperture phase diversity may be an useful alternative if the conventional defocus phase diversity method fails.
This paper analyzes the modulation transfer function of three sub-mirror sparse aperture optical system (Golay3) among the low contrast with the central part, the side lobe peak and the sub-mirror aperture. It is shown that the sparse aperture system can be achieved higher frequency information while the optical imaging system is designed and the side lobe is moved or low contrast of the central part is reduced or contrast of the higher frequency part is increased by changing the position of sub mirrors or size of surrounded apertures.