Visible light imaging is one of the major means of current imaging. But the disadvantages of heavily depending on light conditions greatly limit visible light imaging. How to detect targets effectively under bad illumination conditions is a valuable research direction. Compared with the intensity imaging, the technology of polarization imaging has many advantages and extends the image information from three-dimension (light intensity, spectrum and space) to multi-dimension (the degree of polarization, angle of polarization, the polarization ellipticity and direction of rotation are added). In this paper, the method using polarization imaging technique to improve the ability of target detection and imaging quality under bad illumination conditions is proposed. Experimental results have verified the insensitivity of polarization imaging to illumination and the adaptability of polarization imaging realized the effective detection of the target and improved the target imaging quality under bad illumination conditions.